J.S. Bach: Kyrie II from B Minor Mass (BWV 232, #3)

13 parts17 pages03:592 years ago631 views
Flute, English Horn, Bassoon, Strings(5), Voice(4), Organ
The grave second Kyrie from the B Minor Mass – a four-voice choral fugue doubled by instruments with intermittently independent continuo bass.

Noteworthy for its severity of aspect, this 59-measure plea for mercy is poised in BWV 232 between the upbeat “Christe, eleison” duetto and the exultant Gloria. The unusual chromatic subject features a flattened second exited as a diminished third to the leading tone, creating a Neapolitan sixth on the very second note of the movement. Comprising two and half long 4/2 measures, it is so constructed to accompany itself as a canon at the fifth (or fourth below) at a half-measure (whole-note, “arsin et thesin”) remove – see the stretti beginning in m. 35-36 (alto/tenor) and 40-41 (soprano/bass). As with the gargantuan first Kyrie (https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/811691), study of the various basses which underlay the subject (when it is not actually the bass!) teaches much.

Other than for the stretti mentioned above, the fugue is notable for relative paucity of inversions and other fugal devices upon the subject, and of full expositions, and consequent profusion of lengthy episodes. The flat second of the subject does engender notable chromaticism, supporting the imprecatory message of the movement.

The continuo realization (here for MuseScore “Pipe Organ”, as I sometimes opt for weighty choruses) is, as usual, my own. (There seem to be some errors in the Bachgesellschaft (BGA) figuring, which I have marked with question marks or parentheses in the figures). There are hidden oboes, flutes, and bassoon, which tightly coupled -colla-parte- (as per the score) to the visible strings.

F. Couperin: Troisième Leçon pour Mercredy Sainct à deux voix

4 parts4 pages02:553 years ago789 views
Voice(2), Other Woodwinds, Cello
The “Hebrew Letter” incipits from the third, double-voiced, “Leçons de Tenebres” of François Couperin, for two sopranos and continuo (which I have realized).

The “Lamentations of Tenebrae” are sequential readings from the Old Testament book of Lamentations, sometimes (questionably) attributed to Jeremiah, written to mourn the 500 BC destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, but interpreted by Christianity as mourning the Crucifixion, and thus read during Holy Week in Roman Catholic (as was Couperin) and other churches.

The Hebrew text which is Lamentations is an acrostic; for each chapter, each verse starts with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet (which were also used as numerals). It has become customary in Christian settings, at least from the Baroque and earlier, to actually sing the name of the Hebrew letter in florid melisma with no content but the name of the letter, here Yod (Latin Jod), 10, to Nun, 14. Lamed (12) is the famous “O vos omnes, qui transitis per viam ….”.

Although the whole piece is exceedingly, unforgettably gorgeous, especially when sung by two truly first-rank early-music sopranos, such as on the 70’s Oiseau Lyre recording by (now Dame) Emma Kirkby and the late Judith Nelson (the late Christopher Hogwood direction & continuo) [2/2018- for as long as it lasts, that performance is here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Gl5ZnlJXr8 ], including the two preceding Leçons for one voice, I have opted to only transcribe the Hebrew Letter melismata, because the lack of words on the exquisite recitatifs completely defeats the music. The Letter melismata, though, are especially beautiful, and have no words.

I also publish this today in reference to recent discussions here on 2-3 suspension chains with respect to Fux et al.; the first melisma, Jod, is one of the most exquisite examples of this known to me. Most of the letter melismata begin as canons at the unison, second, or fourth; 2-3 chains are often canons at the second or seventh (cf., Mozart Requiem, “Recordare”).

I have supplied mnemonic images for the Hebrew letters, reflecting my own trilingual-pun fanciful confabulations.

I have modernized some notation (flat instead of backslash in figures, double-dots, and the ornament notation, not exactly an "authentic" thing to do.). I have realized the continuo in normative Bach-like style. The figuring conventions differ somewhat from Bach's.

J.S. Bach: Ich steh’ mit einem Fuß im Grabe (BWV 156, #2)

5 parts15 pages05:383 years ago853 views
Strings, Voice(2), Cello, Contrabass
“I stand with one foot in the grave; soon my sick body will fall in. Come, dear God, whenever you please: my house is already in order—just let my end be blessed.”

This dark thought is the basis of this aria, whose musical landscape is singularly suffused with light, grace, and life. As the tenor sings the above text between an -unisono- string obbligato and continuo, the soprano chorus floats through with all the quiet glory of Sunday-morning sunlight through a stained-glass window, intoning earlier Thomaskantor J. H. Schein’s 1628 chorale (words and music), “Mach’s mit mir Gott, nach deiner Güt’ (familiar from the St. John Passion, “Durch dein Gefängnis, Gottes Sohn”)—“Do with me, God, according to your kindness, help me in my suffering when my soul departs ... all is good when the end is good.” The interplay of the four parts weaves a texture of unforgettable beauty.

This aria is the second movement of the eponymous cantata, BWV 156, whose haunting opening sinfonia-qua-instrumental-arioso has been adapted and transcribed countless times.

Neither the Bach Gesellschaft nor the Neue Bach Ausgabe provide figures for the continuo, and there are issues here that render the continuo realization difficult (although that didn’t stop Helmuth Rilling on his recording), so I left the continuo unrealized for now. The NBA provides a note saying that the syncopated figures, mainly in the continuo, but sometimes in the obbligato, with their odd ties between equal notes, ambiguous as to whether they represent ties or slurs, are to be taken as the latter. The BGA gives all of them except at the opening as quarter-notes, while my score follows the NBA, expanding them out into legato pairs.

The final page is worth a bit of thought. The piece is unambiguously in F major, with various modulatory sections. The last page wanders flatwise, from Bb major via Eb major to F minor, and actually ends in F minor, its then two voices cadencing on the tonic, F, leaving it difficult to prove that it didn't really end in the F major in which it started!

J.S. Bach: Chorale: Betrübtes Herz, sei wohlgemut (BWV 428) with full analysis

5 parts2 pages01:023 years ago1,397 views
Voice(4), Contrabass
"Sorrowful heart, be of good spirits, despair not so thoroughly. All will become good; all your cross, need, and mourning will transform into purest joy in but a short time; this you will indeed experience."

The text of this verse of the hymn “Wenn mein Stündlein vorhanden ist” appears in the libretto of the lost Passion according to St. Mark. The setting occurs among the “source not known” chorales collected by C. P. E. Bach. It seems apparent from textual clues discussed below that this setting is that of the present text. Having heard it at a recent reconstruction of the “Mark Passion”, I investigated further, and decided to share my observations for the benefit of those who might seek to learn or improve their art of four-voice settings.


I have also added figures to the bass — the figures are mine, not Bach’s, employing the same in its analytical, descriptive role (see my continuo manual for more info). The four voices are fully Bach's, not my realization of any figuring. There are five settings of "Wenn mein Stündlein" among the 389 collected four-voice chorales, two from known cantatas (BWV 31#9, 95#7) and three, including this, unsourced (BWV 428-430). I have now posted BWV 430 here with similar analysis: https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/1907771.

<n> refer to scale degrees, for want of a circumflex on numbers. 12.4 means the chord on the 4th (quarter-note) beat of measure 12.

1.1-2 There are any number of good ways to accompany the cantus line <8> <5><6><7><8> in contrary motion (see the other four cited settings), especially exploiting 6-4-2 on on C for the F#, but Bach chooses this exotic and beautiful way with chromatic motion through a Bb alluding to G minor to convey the word “Betrübtes” (“sorrowful”). The wholly unusual C7 chord (in G major, when not "blues"!) in third inversion becomes a quasimodal (as they say at Notre Dame) gesture allusive to G Dorian, such fleeting modal touches being a Bach specialty.

Note also how the first two chords of the piece perform a Schenkerian "voice-exchange" (Stimmtausch) between bass and tenor, swapping the first and third degrees of a chord to prevent stasis, decorated by contrary-motion eighth-note passing tones over the third between them, briefly a melodic figure against its own inversion. This handling of thirds is a staple of this style.

1.3 Note that the “standard” chord (as per the “regola dell’ottava” (http://faculty-web.at.northwestern.edu/music/gjerdingen/partimenti/aboutParti/ruleOfTheOctave.htm)) on <2> is not V, but viio. The seventh, C, in the alto, is not a dissonant seventh of a chord, but a consonant third with the bass, and may, and does, ascend, not descend, as a result.

2.1 Note the anomalous figuring, 5b, denoting a dominant 7th in first inversion (see my figured Bass manual, Ch. 2, https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/1743666, #38).

2.2-3 Here we have an example of a doubled leading-tone (B, soprano and tenor), with the tenor resolving to the (local) tonic, C, and the soprano jumping down. This nominally proscribed doubling results from the unusual turn of the melody and Bach’s decision to harmonize the last note of the line as IV (C), an unusual state of affairs that might call that decision into question. Of the five settings mentioned, four harmonize these two notes as I->IV in this manner (BWV 429 cadences in the relative minor). One (BWV 430) doubles the root instead of the third, while another (BWV 31.9) doubles the third, but leaps up from it, thus having no <7>-><1> motion at all. See also 10.2-3 which imitates the gesture both in the cantus and Bach’s treatment.

3.1-2 Another "voice exchange" of the first and third degrees of a chord between bass and alto, by contrary-motion passing-tones.

3.3 The eighth-note doubling of the passing-tone in soprano in thirds, sixths, or tenths by a lower voice, in this case, tenor, is a beautiful and common technique when two voices cover parallel thirds.

3.4 A B minor chord, iii in our key of G, would have sufficed here, but sounds a bit plain and aloof — Bach flattens what would have been the F# in the alto, changing the chord (almost) to a G7 in first inversion, and its -affekt- from a grey quasimodal chord to a secondary dominant of the C on 4.1, creating a difficult chromatic line Fnat-E-F# in the alto which is not unusual for Bach counterpoint. But also, in so doing, Bach creates a doubled leading-tone of this applied-dominant 7th, B, in the tenor, usually a gauche “no-no”, but that “move” is necessary here - the upper leading-tone does not parallel to the local tonic, C, but resolves as the highly unusual major-seventh on IV chord, 4.1, q.v. Note also that no G (root) is present, although the dominant function is clear, leaving a diminished chord (Bdim, viio/IV), such doubled-root or root-position diminished chords being rare for the very reason of avoidance of doubled leading-tones.

4.1 This major seventh IV chord with the minor-second (actually 9th) clash between B and C is quite unusual in its voicing; this gesture is extremely common with the third (here E) in the bass, the figuring being 6-5 (cf., #37 in continuo manual, Ch. 2, https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/1743666), progressing to V7 also 6-5. Note that the root is doubled; the fifth (G) is sacrificed. Note that even though the tenor B is repeated from the previous chord, in this chorale style it is tantamount to a suspension, and prepared and resolved just so. The clash highlights the word “verzagen” (despair).

Also, note the gorgeous unprepared root-position IV major 7th chord on the barline of the last measure of the beautiful chorale, "Ich bins, ich sollte büssen", #42 from the St. Matthew Passion, whose third measure begins with an example of the more typical 6-5 gesture.

4.3 Note the leap down of a third of the alto from the leading tone to the fifth, i.e., its failure to “lead” to the tonic, a standard "hack” at the final note of lines of Bach chorales whose soprano descends <2> to <1>.

5.2 At some level, Bach “couldn’t resist” the opportunity for a passing tone to fill the third in the alto (between its opening D and F#), but it also serves a rhythmic function to foreshadow the more extensive eighth-note motion coming up.

5.4 Note the alto doubling of the third, G, the “least desirable” doubling of a triad, but the best choice here based on need at 6.1 Otherwise, the alto down to E would have been optimal.

6.1 Again, sixth-or-third-doubled passing tone motion through thirds. The spacing of the 6-3 on G, B-E-B above, is a good one.

6.2 Tripling of the B is suboptimal out of context (the fifth, F#, omitted), but ideal in context. Note the exciting tenor part, B B B B B B, unusual for Bach. The choice of modulating locally to E minor is not implicit in the cantus, yet a possibility therein; the darkening of tonal color prepares the next line, which is laden with suffering, “All your Cross, Need, and Mourning.”

7.1-4 The chromatic bass line, and consequent harmonies, that Bach has chosen here to depict torments, comprise sheer genius. Each of the first three notes (F, F#, G) are “classically consonant” with the cantus, and the last, G#, diminished 5th under D, “sort-of” consonant if resolved classically, which it is (dim5->3rd, 8.1). The D minor chord on 7.1 is utterly out-of-key for either E minor (but not E Phrygian, for what it’s worth) or G major, and a brilliant touch of darkness; perhaps it shares a mystical link with the F natural at 3.4. The tenor climbs up eighth notes to a full diminished seventh at 7.4, the C at 7.2 thus rendered an accented passing tone, not the seventh of a 6-5 seventh chord. Perhaps this colorful and prominent line compensates the tenors for the repeated B's.

8.1-3 The cantus duplicates its gesture of m.4, and Bach duplicates the minor-2 clash, this time with the tenor and alto swapped, so a real 2nd appears. The resultant dissonance, with the chord root in the bass, is a classic 9-8 suspension, again, the B prepared suspended from a diminished 7th chord which fully incorporates the B diminished at 3.4.

9.1 An optimally voiced 6-3 chord (see my continuo manual).

9.2 Here we have a 6-4 chord, in one of the handful of situations where it is permitted, with its bass a bona fide passing-tone.

9.3 This 6-4-2 is a fairly colorful gesture which well sets the cantus. The resolution of its sharp fourth, the F# in the alto, downward, is highly irregular and “not recommended”. Fourths certainly usually descend to thirds, but not augmented fourths in 6-4-2’s, which are expected to ascend (this can also be viewed as another leading-tone "failing to lead" (thanks, TMH!)). Schenker would say that the dissonance resolves in the Soprano, but “don’t try this at home.”

9.4 More passing-tone motion in the cantus supported by other voices, in this case in tenths and contrary motion.

10.2-3 Considering the target C major at 10.3 a local tonic, 10.2 becomes a local dominant, and B in the bass its leading tone, a role contraindicated by the B in the cantus, which is not treated as a leading tone (and creating a classically “bad” doubled leading tone) leading us, as it were, to question the choice of (IV) C for 10.3. See 2.2. (Again, Bach largely sticks with this decision in the other settings).

10.4 With the previous decision, this perfectly-voiced A minor is a reasonable choice, but one can imagine other.

11.1 G would have worked perfectly well here in the alto, a G major chord, even with the root and third doubled and no fifth (leading to possible ambiguity with E minor). But Instead, Bach has added this wild, colorful figure in the alto, treating the seeming-passing-tone ending the previous measure as a suspension, a major seventh resolving in “simultaneous dissonant motions”, another Bach specialty, to another seventh. This gesture is outlandish; whether or not it portrays “verwandeln” (“transform”) is a fair question.

11.3 The obvious A in the tenor would have created parallel fifths with the alto — this poignant and skillful-sounding suspension of a seventh thus seems a “cheat”!! Note that this aspiring seventh chord lacks a fifth (G), but, as always, Bach’s artistic sense is unfailing.

11.4 The colorful figure approaching the dominant seventh’s seventh (C) might well echo the strange figure on 11.1, or perhaps motivate it.

12.1 See previous remarks on filling thirds and doubling passing-tones.

12.2 The double dissonance here (7-4), the delaying of the C# by an eighth-note, ameliorates triple parallel-motion that would otherwise result, while supporting the agenda of eighth-note motion.

12.4 The eighth-note motion in the tenor, by virtue of its not being a doubling of passing-tones over its moving bass, is fairly unusual, and here seems motivated by the lack of an A in the D chord on the beat of 12.4 and the need to reach B at 13.1.

13.2 The real chord here is D major, first (6-3) inversion; the G in the bass is an “accented passing tone”, demanding the unusual 5-2 figure. This motion allows Bach to fill the fourth between the B of 13.1 and the F# on the second eighth and sustain eighth-note motion that continues to the end of the piece. This gesture forbids the F# from being doubled in the upper voices.

13.3 The leap of the bass a seventh from E up to D is called a “register change” — the logical bass is E D C B A, but out of range for a reasonable part — these unusual leaps to effect such changes are an earmark of Bach counterpoint, and add interest in addition to shifting registers (and, at times, facilitate what would be forbidden parallels without the shift).

14 — Bach often employs such elaborate, madrigalesque writing at the end of chorales - the wholly-syncopated alto in its sequence of 2-3 suspensions with the soprano would not be reasonable any place else in such a chorale. Note that all of the off-beat eighth-notes in the bass are not strictly necessary arpeggiations which only serve to sustain a quickened, eighth-note pulse.

14.1 Note that this inverted viio (diminished) is not a seventh chord, so the C needn't resolve downward - see 1.3.

14.2 Note the doubled B, perhaps a local leading tone, in the arpeggiation, but the contrary stepwise motion to the resolution, vi, not I, here makes the intent clear to the ear.

Text (c) 2016 Bernard Greenberg

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For this MuseScore performance, I have implemented legatos in the Piano Roll editor, thereupon copied the bass at the octave into a hidden contrabass, and employed customized “pauses” (the commas) between chorale lines in addition to the obligatory ritardandi at the end.

J.S. Bach: Gute Nacht, o Wesen (BWV 227, #9)

4 parts8 pages03:543 years ago1,923 views
Voice(4)
The aetherial -senza-basso- "chorale prelude" chorus from the motet, "Jesu, meine Freude".

The great motet, "Jesu, meine Freude", BWV 227, the most elaborate and lengthy of the six works (BWV 225-230) historically subsumed under that rubric (although BWV 118 and others now are), was probably composed, likely with earlier components, for a Leipzig funeral in 1723. Its eleven movements for five choral voices form a palindromic arch immediately apparent to the listener, whose keystone is a fugue. Bach alternates verses, in plain and diversely elaborate settings, of Cruger's chorale on Franck's eponymous hymn extolling a close personal, loving (but highly mystical) relationship with Jesus with verses from Paul (Romans 8) describing and prescribing being "in Christ Jesus", each of these two texts explicating the other in this notion.

The "six motets", a continuing staple of Bach's continuing -Thomanerchor-, are scored without instrumentation (well, one or two, but not 227, indicate continuo), and are often performed -a-cappella- by all manner of amateur and professional ensembles, although the literature tells us that they were likely performed with improvised continuo or light instrumentation doubling the voices. They are supremely effective either way; I've chosen "a cappella" performance on MuseScore. Considered -a-cappella-, they comprise Bach's -only- such work.

The ninth movement, "Gute Nacht, o Wesen" ("Good night, o Being"), bids good night to earthly being: sin, pride and grandiosity-- good night to all the "life of corruption" (du Lasterleben) (whether this refers to death or simply accepting Jesus is left to the reader). In any case, the departure from earthly foundation is represented by the lack of a bass part -- the movement is scored SSAT, where the alto is given to the plain cantus of the chorale. Surrounding its masterfully-timed entrances, the other voices spin a mystical, gauzelike web of dark, gentle counterpoint, sometimes imitative of the chorale (mm. 82-90) but more often not, unless the unceasing step-scale patterns in the tenor "bass" be taken as inverted allusion to the head-theme of the chorale (perhaps gentle rise to Heaven, too?).

Some of my own favorite moments are the exquisite little canon at the fourth at mm. 25-30, almost a textbook case for this still common pattern, the bitterly poignant 4-2 dissonance at 23 (and 57), E-F-A, as well as their preceding ninth and augmented chords in mm. 21 and 54, the third-inversion augmented sixths closing mm. 10 and 44, and the here rare chromatic steps in mm. 75 & 86.

"Gute Nacht, o Wesen" is an "organ chorale prelude not for organ but for chorus", a form pioneered and advanced by Bach--elaborate, independent, almost madrigalesque obbligati backgrounding a chorale cantus firmus. Mozart pays tribute to it in -The-Magic-Flute-'s Duet of the Two Armored Men (Der, welcher wandert diese Strasse), covertly a chorale prelude on "Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh' darein" featuring a continuous walking string figure seemingly "separated at birth" from the tenor "bass" in the present movement.

The textural and emotional remove of this movement from its surrounding motet mark it for me, at least, as one of the latter's (paradoxically many) highlights. Pamela Dellal's flawless translation of the whole may be found here: http://www.emmanuelmusic.org/notes_translations/translations_cantata/t_bwv227.htm .

(Text ©2016 BSG)

Here's an excellent live performance by four singers: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NhyfJAT15U .

J. S. Bach/Tovey: Contrapunctus XIV (D. F. Tovey completion)

5 parts22 pages11:343 years ago1,472 views
Organ(5)
Sir Donald Francis Tovey (1875-1940) was a renowned English music critic, editor and author, as well as composer and pianist. He is famous not only for his edition of and "Companion to" Bach's "Art of Fugue", but books and essays on Beethoven, Brahms, and others. His witty, acerbic, yet erudite texts, now inexpensive, still make excellent reading today.

If you have not yet, please read the "About" remarks accompanying Bach's Contrapunctus XIV (https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/1098496) as the requisite background for this offering.

Tovey's "completion" of Contrapunctus XIV, published 1931, is perhaps the best-known prior to Zoltán Göncz' groundbreaking 1990's work. In the "Companion" accompanying his Art of Fugue edition (now $17USD together from Dover Publications and Amazon), he lucidly explains his method and plan. By studying the extant torso, Nottebohm's 1880 discovery of the combination of all four subjects (including the "main theme" of the cycle), and experimenting with combinations, Tovey arrived at many of the same findings as did Göncz, including the possibility, nay, necessity, of stating Subject I (of Contrapunctus XIV) at the fifth of the key (double counterpoint at the twelfth) of the other three in certain "stackings" (vertical permutations, what Göncz confusingly calls "pitch exchanges"), e.g., m. 241 alto. As per the "rules of the game" for all putative completers, he completes the third sub-fugue (the one introducing "B.A.C.H.") with a couple of more stacked hyperstretti (parallel expositions of different first-class themes (not "countersubjects") or inversions of same themes) of the first three themes before introducing the "main theme" of the cycle. Unlike Göncz (but like Eskeland (https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/1098496)), he admits the inversion of the second subject, and in his text even explains why he thinks it is designed to facilitate double counterpoint and (melodic) inversion. As a result, hyperstretto of all four themes in inversion appears (m. 263), but not in Göncz', who considers Mizler's report suggesting that one was planned to be ambiguous.

As with anyone in this domain, he has diagrams of "stackings" of voices. He seems to understand the "natural" stacking of the subjects to be the same as does Göncz and Nottebohm (main subject soprano, second subject alto, third subject tenor, first subject bass), but without much commentary. Not having discovered Göncz' "permutation matrix", he does not explore what the latter considers to be "the full sequence" implied by the overlap of the three full expositions. Amazingly, his last measure is based on the same riff from the end of Subject 2, in thirds, as is Göncz' (who does not credit Tovey).

One is obliged to judge these various completions on a variety of considerations: stylistic consistency with the torso, as well as with the entire oeuvre of Bach, credibility of the ground plan (here Göncz gets the prize), craftsmanship/quality of counterpoint, and subjective appeal as music, nay, putative great music, and drama: a required unceasing crescendo of complexity, interest, and emotional power from beginning to end of the fugue. Open in my mind is the question of whether Bach, so summarizing his entire life work, would have loosed some wholly original gesture of unimaginable grandeur -- a boy's choir, elephants, dancing girls and Eric Clapton (even without the three latter, does "Kommt, ihr Töchter" (https://musescore.com/user/1831606/scores/812951) fail this description?) -- Göncz tries for that, with his five voices, two pedal points, and bookend sandwich of the main theme simultaneous with its inversion, whereas Tovey just gives us a hell of a fitting finale for this great fugue (if not for the cycle, or the life-work of Bach).

There are touches in Tovey (e.g., the G7 and chromatic in 242 and the bass Bb in 246) that sound more heart-rendingly fresh and Bachian than Göncz' fairly staid Bachian colossus, but he doesn't carry it through. Göncz' work (which is copyrighted, so I won't enter it) may be heard and seen (video score) at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GO3ewYOD4zE.

As with the earlier (incomplete) score, I have marked subject entries with red, circled numbers. "1-5th" means subject 1 transposed a 5th (up by default) in double-counterpoint at the twelfth, and "m" means "modified" in some way, usually tonally, e.g.., starting on A instead of a G before a D in the "main subject" in (putatively) G minor. Tovey's work starts at measure 239.

Tovey's work, and his writing about it, are terrific, but anyone seeking full illumination on this subject is obliged to read Göncz' book: http://www.amazon.com/Bachs-Testament-Philosophical-Theological-Background/dp/081088447X.