Can someone explain these things for me?

So, I'm going to be going to this music class, and I'm excited about it, but I need to know music theory (i.e.)
Specifically, I need to be able to the following things. 

Easily identify notes on the scale. (I can do this)

Understand intermediate rhythmic values. (Not sure if I know this. Can someone elaborate it more for me?)

Know and recognize Major, minor, 7, and sustained chords. (I have no idea)

Can someone help and explain these things to me? 

a month ago
9

Story Contest!!!

So I was inspired by another group, I think it was randomly screwing around. Write your most embarrassing thing that's ever happened to you, and the best one will be made an admin.

3 months ago
8

Extended Secondary Dominant Principle(s)

Hi, I just joined and thought I'd start some discussion.

If you've gone through the standard text books I'm sure you've encountered secondary dominants and the extended secondary dominant principle, but I wondered if you've thought that it can be taken even further?

For example:
1. secondary subdominants (yes it works!)
2. doubly false cadences - my own term, for example if you have V -> VI (false cadence), then you can interpose a V/VI: V -> V/VI -> VI, but instead of going to VI go to VI/VI (IV): V -> V/VI -> VI/VI (doubly false cadence).

anyone here already investigated these kinds of progressions?

a year ago
9