Sheet music

Hero

2 parts4 pages03:18a year ago1,893 views
Piano(2)
Hero by Enrique Iglesias, I made this just because i love this song. I hope you'll like it too. :).


C major.

Crab Rave- Noisestorm [Monstercat Release]

27 parts21 pages02:3714 days ago6,488 views
Percussion(6), Oboe, Clarinet(2), Trumpet, Alto Saxophone, Tenor Saxophone, French Horn(2), Baritone Saxophone(2), Bassoon(2), Tuba(2), Bass, Trombone(2), Piano(4)
*MAKE SURE YOU ASK FOR PERMISSION FROM ME IN THE COMMENTS TO USE THIS SCORE. PLEASE SPECIFY EXACTLY WHAT YOU ARE GOING TO USE IT FOR. THANKS! :)*


*4 PERCUSSION PARTS ARE CUT OFF DUE TO THE OVERALL AMOUNT OF PARTS*

Enjoy!
Please favorite, follow, and comment! :)
CURRENTLY TAKING REQUESTS

*UPDATE* March 16th, 2019
-Added more melody parts to alto sax, trumpet and clarinet.
-Got rid of the timpani part and added more snare.
-Raised overall tempo by 9 bpm.
-Raised flute part by an octave.

*UPDATE* March 17th, 2019
-Raised oboe part by an octave
-Added a TON more bass (Doubled parts, raised dynamics)
-Edited percussion dynamics
-Slightly altered articulations

*UPDATE* March 20th, 2019
-Slightly altered percussion parts
-Edited dynamics AGAIN
-Made the measure width format slightly easier to read (still not complete)
-Lowered tempo by 4 bpm

*UPDATE* March 21st, 2019
-Changed trombone part
-Changed trumpet part's melody.
-Raised generic tuba part by an octave

*UPDATE* March 22nd, 2019
-At the very end of the song, gave the oboe, flute and french horn the melodie, replacing the trumped
-Added expressions at certain measure markings
-Changed font of title.

*UPDATE* March 24th, 2019
-Added wood blocks at the beginning of the song instead of a secondary snare part.
-Lowered tempo to 125 bpm
-Reformatted measure widths
-Slightly altered articulations for all parts




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Bazzi

253

3:17
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Backstreet Boys

254

3:03
OneRepublic - Start Again ft. Logic
OneRepublic

255

3:36
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Alessia Cara

256

3:28
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The Chainsmokers

257

3:06
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Zhavia Ward

258

3:50
ROBIN SCHULZ & MARC SCIBILIA - UNFORGETTABLE (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
Robin Schulz

259

3:09
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Ella Mai

260

3:43
LSD - Genius ft. Sia, Diplo, Labrinth
Sia

261

3:24
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MAGIC!

262

4:24
Charlie Puth - BOY [Official Audio]
Charlie Puth

263

3:50
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Iggy Azalea

264

4:20
Jason Mraz - Have It All (Official Video)
Jason Mraz

265

3:50
QUADRY - Pirelli (Good Days) Produced by DJ DAHI (Official Video)
QUADRY

266

6:40
Gary Clark Jr - This Land [Official Music Video]
garyclarkjr

267

5:15
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Gus Dapperton

268

3:34
Matt Nathanson - Used To Be
Matt Nathanson

269

3:17
Michael Bublé - Love You Anymore [Official Music Video]
Michael Bublé

270

3:21
Gorillaz - Humility (Official Video)
Gorillaz

271

4:58
Alesso - REMEDY (Official Music Video)
Alesso

272

3:27
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Sigala

273

3:20
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Maroon 5

274

3:25
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Gromeeofficial

275

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Lauv

276

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Charlie Puth - Patient [Official Audio]
Charlie Puth

277

2:58
Alec Benjamin - Let Me Down Slowly [Official Music Video]
Alec Benjamin

278

3:15
Banx & Ranx + Ella Eyre - Answerphone ft. Yxng Bane (Official Video)
Banx & Ranx

279

3:32
Rudimental & Major Lazer - Let Me Live (feat. Anne-Marie & Mr Eazi) [Official Video]
Rudimental

280

4:18
Hayley Kiyoko - Curious [Official Video]
Hayley Kiyoko

281

3:22
P!nk - Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken (Official Video)
P!NK

282

2:46
OneRepublic - Connection
OneRepublic

283

4:22
Years & Years - If You're Over Me (Official video)
Years & Years

284

3:50
Rudimental - Walk Alone feat. Tom Walker [Official Video]
Rudimental

285

3:51
Sam Smith - Pray (Official Video) ft. Logic
SAM SMITH

286

3:53
Tyga - Taste (Official Music Video) ft. Offset
Tyga

287

4:29
Carly Rae Jepsen - Party For One
CarlyRaeMusic

288

6:20
Nicki Minaj - Ganja Burn
Nicki Minaj

289

3:53
Imagine Dragons - Zero (From the Original Motion Picture "Ralph Breaks The Internet")
ImagineDragons

290

3:43
Ansel Elgort - Supernova
Ansel Elgort

291

3:46
Steve Aoki x Lauren Jauregui - All Night (Official Video) [Ultra Music]
Ultra Music

292

4:03
Charlie Puth - If You Leave Me Now (feat. Boyz II Men) [Official Audio]
Charlie Puth

293

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Troye Sivan

294

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Bebe Rexha

295

3:43
DJ Khaled - I Believe (from Disney’s A WRINKLE IN TIME) ft. Demi Lovato
DJ Khaled

296

3:37
Hayley Kiyoko - "What I Need" (feat. Kehlani) [Performance Video]
Hayley Kiyoko

297

3:19
Bazzi - Myself (Official Video)
Bazzi

298

3:34
Kylie Minogue - Stop Me From Falling feat. Gente De Zona (Official Video)
Kylie Minogue

299

2:54
Sigrid - High Five (Official Video)
Sigrid

300

2:33
R3HAB x Sofia Carson - Rumors (Official Video)
R3HAB

301

3:41
NOTD, Bea Miller - I Wanna Know
NOTD

302

3:41
Mabel, Not3s - Fine Line (Official Video)
Mabel

303

3:37
James Arthur - You Deserve Better (Official Music Video)
James Arthur

304

2:50
XUITCASECITY - Die Young (Official Music Video)
xuitcasecity

305

3:42
Camila Cabello - In the Dark (Official Audio)
Camila Cabello

306

3:37
Diplo - Stay Open (feat. MØ) (Official Lyric Video)
Diplo

307

3:56
Alan Walker, Keala Settle & The Greatest Showman Ensemble - This Is Me (Alan Walker Relift)
Alan Walker

308

3:00
Meghan Trainor - Let You Be Right (Official Music Video)
Meghan Trainor

309

3:25
Tinashe - Faded Love (Vertical Video) ft. Future
Tinashe

310

3:50
AJR - Sober Up (feat. Rivers Cuomo) [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
AJR

311

3:40
Gryffin with Elley Duhé - Tie Me Down (Official Music Video)
GRYFFINOFFICIAL

312

3:32
Ciara - Level Up
Ciara

313

3:21
Shawn Mendes "Lost In Japan" (Audio)
Shawn Mendes

314

3:38
Carrie Underwood - The Champion (Official Lyric Video) ft. Ludacris
Carrie Underwood

315

3:31
Echosmith - Over My Head [Official Music Video]
Echosmith

316

3:14
Kylie Minogue - Dancing (Official Video)
Kylie Minogue

317

3:19
Sabrina Carpenter, Jonas Blue - Alien (Official Video)
Sabrina Carpenter

318

3:13
KYLE - Playinwitme feat. Kehlani [Lyric Video]
SuperDuperKyle

319

3:42
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Hayley Kiyoko

320

3:54
Mr. Probz - Space For Two
Mr. Probz

321

4:12
Grace VanderWaal - Clearly
Oh Never Mind It’s Just Me - Grace VanderWaal

322

3:05
ZAYN - Too Much ft. Timbaland
zayn

323

2:46
Camila Cabello - All These Years (Official Audio)
Camila Cabello

324

3:47
Rudy Mancuso & Maia Mitchell - Magic (Official Music Video)
Rudy Mancuso

325

3:56
TobyMac - I just need U.
TobyMac

326

4:46
Childish Gambino - Feels Like Summer (Official Music Video)
Donald Glover

327

3:37
Grace VanderWaal - City Song
Oh Never Mind It’s Just Me - Grace VanderWaal

328

3:41
Kehlani - Again (Official Audio)
Kehlani

329

4:17
RJ Word - What You Need (Official Video)
RJ Word

330

3:32
The Vamps - Hair Too Long (Official Video)
The Vamps

331

3:12
Galantis - Mama Look At Me Now (Official Music Video)
Galantis

332

4:41
Paramore: Rose-Colored Boy [OFFICIAL VIDEO]
Fueled By Ramen

333

3:22
Thirty Seconds To Mars - Dangerous Night (Audio)
THIRTY SECONDS TO MARS

334

3:32
Jesse McCartney - Better With You (Official Video)
Jesse McCartney

335

3:18
Charlie Puth - LA Girls [Official Audio]
Charlie Puth

336

4:19
Lady Gaga - Your Song (Audio)
Lady Gaga

337

3:46
Carrie Underwood The Champion (Official Music Video)
Carrie Underwood

338

2:58
Marshmello x Lil Peep - Spotlight [Official Audio]
Marshmello

339

3:58
DJ Snake - Magenta Riddim
DJ Snake

340

3:29
Marshmello - LoVe U (Official Music Video)
Marshmello

341

4:03
Sting & Shaggy - Don't Make Me Wait (Official)
Sting

342

3:46
Breaking Benjamin - Red Cold River (Official Video)
Breaking Benjamin

343

3:17
Eleni Foureira - Fuego - Official Music Video
PanikRecordsTube

344

4:13
Juan Magan, Mala Rodríguez - Usted
JuanMagan

345

3:28
Marcus & Martinus - Remind Me
Marcus & Martinus

346

3:39
X Ambassadors - Don't Stay (Official Video)
X Ambassadors

347

4:36
Bad Wolves - Zombie (Official Video)
E7 Music

348

5:16
Years & Years - Sanctify (Official Video)
Years & Years

349

3:26
Lauv - Chasing Fire [Official Audio]
Lauv

350

3:38
Bryce Vine - Drew Barrymore (ft. Wale) [Official Remix Music Video]
Bryce Vine

351

2:59
Marshmello x Lil Peep - Spotlight (Official Music Video)
Marshmello

352

3:50
Jason Derulo - Colors (Official Music Video) The Coca-Cola Anthem for the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Jason Derulo

353

4:05
Cash Cash - Finest Hour (feat. Abir) [Official Video]
Cash Cash

354

2:39
Marshmello - TELL ME (Original Mix)
Marshmello

355

4:30
Carrie Underwood - Cry Pretty (Official Video)
Carrie Underwood

356

3:22
James Bay - Wild Love (Official Music Video)
James Bay

357

3:27
Breaking Benjamin - Psycho (Audio)
Breaking Benjamin

358

3:29
Halsey - Alone (Audio) ft. Big Sean, Stefflon Don
Halsey

359

2:53
One Bit, Noah Cyrus - My Way (Official Video)
OneBitMusicVEVO

360

3:34
Ananya Birla - Hold On
AnanyaBirlaVEVO

361

3:49
Pitbull - Better On Me (Official Video) ft. Ty Dolla $ign
Pitbull

362

2:46
Ty Dolla $ign - Ex ft. YG [Music Video]
Ty Dolla $ign

363

3:20
Daniel Skye, Baby Ariel - Say It (Official Music Video)
Daniel Skye

364

3:43
Ne-Yo, Bebe Rexha, Stefflon Don - Push Back (Lyric Video)
Ne-Yo

365

4:03
Krewella - Alibi (Official Music Video)
Krewella

366

4:24
Cardi B - Drip feat. Migos [Official Audio]
Cardi B

367

3:57
Weezer - Africa
weezer

368

3:29
Flo Rida - Dancer (Official Video)
Flo Rida

369

3:07
Bea Miller - S.L.U.T. (Official Video)
bea miller

370

3:07
Madison Beer - Home With You (Official Video)
Madison Beer

371

3:36
Lil Dicky - Freaky Friday (Lyrics) ft. Chris Brown
SyrebralVibes

372

5:28
Migos - Walk It Talk It ft. Drake
Migos ATL

373

3:42
The Weeknd - Try Me (Official Audio)
The Weeknd

374

4:01
Calvin Harris, Dua Lipa - One Kiss (ZHU Remix) (Audio)
Calvin Harris

375

3:25
Billie Eilish - idontwannabeyouanymore (Vertical Video)
Billie Eilish

376

3:32
ANTONIA - Tango | Official Video
ANTONIA

377

4:01
Charlie Puth - If You Leave Me Now (feat. Boyz II Men) [Studio Session]
Charlie Puth

378

3:46
Kelly Clarkson - I Don't Think About You [Official Video]
Kelly Clarkson

379

4:17
ZAYN - SHE DON'T LOVE ME (Lyric Video)
zayn

380

3:08
Blaise Moore - Grips [Official Music Video]
Blaise Moore

381

4:25
Khalid - OTW ft. 6LACK, Ty Dolla $ign (Official Audio)
Khalid

382

3:49
Marshmello & Anne-Marie - FRIENDS (Acoustic Video) *OFFICIAL FRIENDZONE ANTHEM*
Marshmello

383

3:41
Erika Costell - Chitty Bang ft. Jake Paul (Official Music Video)
Erika Costell

384

3:24
gnash - imagine if (music video)
gnash

385

4:05
Childish Gambino - This Is America (Official Video)
Donald Glover

386

3:37
Becky G, Natti Natasha - Sin Pijama (Video Oficial)
Becky G

387

4:02
Camila Cabello - Never Be the Same (Official Music Video)
Camila Cabello

388

3:29
The Weeknd, Kendrick Lamar - Pray For Me (Lyric Video)
The Weeknd

389

4:02
Ella Mai - Boo'd Up
Ella Mai

390

4:00
Ed Sheeran - Supermarket Flowers [Live from the BRITs 2018]
Ed Sheeran

391

4:22
Khalid - Fast Car (Tracy Chapman cover) (in the Live Lounge)
BBCRadio1VEVO

392

3:34
Marshmello & Anne-Marie - Friends || Bars and Melody COVER
Bars and Melody OFFICIAL

393

3:32
Fall Out Boy - Church
Fall Out Boy

394

3:35
SHY Martin - Good Together (Official Video)
Dance Goals

395

4:04
Christina Aguilera - Twice (Audio)
Christina Aguilera

396

4:35
Florida Georgia Line - Simple
Florida Georgia Line

397

3:12
Calum Scott - Come Back Home (Audio)
Calum Scott

398

4:31
Troye Sivan - The Good Side (Official Audio)
Troye Sivan

399

3:46
Claudia Leitte - Carnaval ft. Pitbull
Claudia Leitte

400

3:05
Camila Cabello - Inside Out (Official Audio)
Camila Cabello

401

3:55
Craig David - I Know You ft. Bastille
Craig David

402

3:06
A$AP Rocky - Bad Company (Audio) ft. BlocBoy JB
ASAPROCKYUPTOWN

403

4:02
Sam Smith - Too Good At Goodbyes (Live From Hackney Round Chapel)
SAM SMITH

404

3:46
DallasK - Self Control (lyric video)
MrSuicideSheep

405

3:19
Era Istrefi - Origami feat. DJ Maphorisa (Cover Art) [Ultra Music]
Ultra Music

406

3:24
John Legend, BloodPop® - A Good Night ft. BloodPop®
John Legend

407

3:45
Fall Out Boy - Wilson (Expensive Mistakes)
Fall Out Boy

408

3:17
Superorganism - Everybody Wants To Be Famous (Official Video)
Superorganism

409

3:21
Noah Cyrus, MØ - We Are... ft. MØ (Lyric Video)
Noah Cyrus

410

3:36
Charlie Puth - Change (feat. James Taylor) [Official Audio]
Charlie Puth

411

4:40
Ed Sheeran - Perfect (Official Music Video)
Ed Sheeran

412

5:38
ZAYN - Dusk Till Dawn ft. Sia (Official Music Video)
zayn

413

4:16
Taylor Swift - Look What You Made Me Do
Taylor Swift

414

4:25
Sam Smith - Too Good At Goodbyes (Official Video)
SAM SMITH

415

3:37
Camila Cabello - Havana (Vertical Video) ft. Young Thug
Camila Cabello

416

3:31
Luis Fonsi, Demi Lovato - Échame La Culpa (Video Oficial)
Luis Fonsi

417

2:58
Bebe Rexha - Meant to Be (feat. Florida Georgia Line) [Official Music Video]
Bebe Rexha

418

3:31
Charlie Puth - "How Long" [Official Video]
Charlie Puth

419

4:02
Post Malone - rockstar ft. 21 Savage
Post Malone

420

3:40
Imagine Dragons - Whatever It Takes
ImagineDragons

421

4:47
G-Eazy & Halsey - Him & I (Official Music Video)
G-Eazy

422

3:34
Maroon 5 - What Lovers Do ft. SZA
Maroon 5

423

3:31
Taylor Swift - …Ready For It?
Taylor Swift

424

3:10
CNCO, Little Mix - Reggaetón Lento (Remix) [Official Video]
Little Mix

425

3:43
Rita Ora - Anywhere (Official Video)
Rita Ora

426

3:33
Selena Gomez, Marshmello - Wolves (Official Music Video)
Selena Gomez

427

3:04
Halsey - Bad At Love (Official Music Video)
Halsey

428

3:29
HRVY - Personal (Official Video)
HRVY

429

4:19
Flo Rida feat Maluma - Hola (Official Video)
Flo Rida

430

3:41
Alan Walker - All Falls Down (feat. Noah Cyrus with Digital Farm Animals)
Alan Walker

431

2:48
Ofenbach vs. Nick Waterhouse - Katchi (Official Video)
Ofenbach

432

3:38
Jason Derulo - Tip Toe feat French Montana (Official Music Video)
Jason Derulo

433

3:04
Martin Garrix & David Guetta - So Far Away (Official Video) feat. Jamie Scott & Romy Dya
Martin Garrix

434

3:58
Demi Lovato - Tell Me You Love Me (Lyrics Video)
AbdullRahman Mohd

435

3:05
Avicii - Lonely Together ft. Rita Ora
Avicii

436

3:58
DJ Snake, Lauv - A Different Way
DJ Snake

437

4:02
James Arthur - Naked (Official Music Video)
James Arthur

438

4:21
Kygo & Justin Jesso - Stargazing (Official Video)
KygoMusic

439

4:58
P!nk - Beautiful Trauma (Official Video)
P!NK

440

3:46
Katy Perry - Hey Hey Hey (Official)
Katy Perry

441

3:32
Taylor Swift - Gorgeous (Lyric Video)
Taylor Swift

442

3:53
Machine Gun Kelly, X Ambassadors & Bebe Rexha - Home (from Bright: The Album) [Official Video]
Atlantic Records

443

3:37
Clean Bandit - I Miss You (feat. Julia Michaels) [Official Video]
Clean Bandit

444

3:23
Marshmello - Silence Ft. Khalid (Official Music Video)
Marshmello

445

3:26
Justin Bieber & BloodPop® - Friends (Official Music Video)
kINFINITY

446

3:03
Hailee Steinfeld, Alesso - Let Me Go ft. Florida Georgia Line, WATT
Hailee Steinfeld

447

4:53
Jason Derulo - If I'm Lucky Part 1 (Official Music Video)
Jason Derulo

448

5:22
Eminem - Walk On Water (Official Video)
EminemMusic

449

4:09
MACKLEMORE FEAT KESHA - GOOD OLD DAYS (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO)
Macklemore LLC

450

2:28
Lost Frequencies & Zonderling - Crazy (Official Music Video)
Lost Frequencies

451

3:36
NF - Let You Down
NFrealmusic

452

3:29
Tom Walker - Leave a Light On (Official Video)
Tom Walker

453

3:27
Taylor Swift - Call It What You Want (Lyric Video)
Taylor Swift

454

2:50
These Girls - Why Don't We [Official Music Video]
Why Don't We

455

3:57
Zedd, Liam Payne - Get Low (Street Video)
Zedd

456

4:32
Ramz - Barking [Music Video] | GRM Daily
GRM Daily

457

3:29
Taylor Swift - ...Ready For It? (Audio)
Taylor Swift

458

3:46
Niall Horan - Too Much To Ask (Official)
Niall Horan

459

3:16
Bob Sinclar feat. Akon - Til The Sun Rise Up (Official Music Video)
Spinnin' Records

460

3:33
Major Lazer & DJ Maphorisa - Particula (ft. Nasty C, Ice Prince, Patoranking & Jidenna)(Music Video)
Major Lazer

461

3:32
Marcus & Martinus - Make You Believe In Love
Marcus & Martinus

462

3:37
Lauv - Paris in the Rain [Official Video]
Lauv

463

3:29
Sia - Santa's Coming For Us
Sia

464

3:24
Sia - Rainbow (From The 'My Little Pony: The Movie' Official Soundtrack) (Official Video)
Sia

465

4:31
Abraham Mateo, 50 Cent, Austin Mahone - Háblame Bajito (Video Oficial)
Abraham Mateo

466

3:46
Calvin Harris - Hard to Love (Official Video) ft. Jessie Reyez
Calvin Harris

467

3:36
Camila Cabello - Real Friends (Official Audio)
Camila Cabello

468

3:39
Young Thug - Relationship (feat. Future) [Official Music Video]
Young Thug

469

3:17
Nico Santos - Rooftop (Official Video)
Nico Santos

470

3:24
Liam Payne - Bedroom Floor (Official Video)
Liam Payne Official

471

3:34
Logic & Rag'n'Bone Man - Broken People (from Bright: The Album) [Official Lyric Video]
Atlantic Records

472

3:24
OneRepublic, Seeb - Rich Love
OneRepublic

473

3:36
Sam Smith - One Last Song (Official Video)
SAM SMITH

474

3:43
Calvin Harris - Feels (Official Video) ft. Pharrell Williams, Katy Perry, Big Sean
Calvin Harris

475

4:17
Niall Horan - Flicker (Acoustic)
Niall Horan

476

3:23
Kygo - This Town (Lyric) ft. Sasha Sloan
KygoMusic

477

3:42
Youngboy Never Broke Again - Pour One (Official Audio)
YoungBoy Never Broke Again

478

3:25
Bryson Tiller - Run Me Dry (Official Video)
Bryson Tiller

479

3:23
Charly Black, Luis Fonsi - Party Animal
CharlyBlackVEVO

480

4:19
Demi Lovato - Tell Me You Love Me (Vevo X Demi Lovato)
Demi Lovato

481

3:48
Jessie J - Not My Ex
Jessie J

482

3:37
Fall Out Boy - HOLD ME TIGHT OR DON’T
Fall Out Boy

483

2:32
Rich Brian - Chaos
88rising

484

3:10
Two Feet - I Feel Like I'm Drowning
TwoFeet

485

3:57
Harry Styles - Two Ghosts (live in studio)
Harry Styles

486

4:42
Lana Del Rey - White Mustang (Official Music Video)
Lana Del Rey

487

3:39
Nick Jonas - Find You
nickjonas

488

3:19
A Boogie Wit Da Hoodie - No Promises [Official Audio]
A-Boogie Wit Da Hoodie

489

3:47
Alok & Mathieu Koss - Big Jet Plane (Official Music Video)
Spinnin' Records

490

2:54
David Guetta & Afrojack ft Charli XCX & French Montana - Dirty Sexy Money (Official Video)
David Guetta

491

3:26
Rudimental - Sun Comes Up feat. James Arthur [Official Video]
Rudimental

492

3:38
Talk To Ya - HRVY | Flighthouse Lyric Video
Flighthouse

493

3:29
Maroon 5 - Whiskey ft. A$AP Rocky
Maroon 5

494

3:01
Kelly Clarkson - Love So Soft [Official Video]
Kelly Clarkson

495

3:13
Kris Wu - Deserve ft. Travis Scott (Official Music Video)
Kris Wu

496

3:55
Tim McGraw, Faith Hill - The Rest of Our Life
TimandFaithVEVO

497

3:26
Louis Tomlinson - Just Like You (Lyric Video)
Louis Tomlinson

498

3:38
Remy Ma - Wake Me Up ft. Lil' Kim
Remy Ma

499

5:08
KODAK BLACK "Snot Thot"
Kodak Black

500

2:59
Grace VanderWaal - So Much More Than This (Official Music Video)
Oh Never Mind It’s Just Me - Grace VanderWaal

Composer Title - Click To Sort Yr. Keyword Hear It, Download It
1 Beethoven Symphony No. 5: I 1808 rousing iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
2 Tchaikovsky 1812 Overture 1880 powerful iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
3 Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik: Allegro 1787 formal iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
4 Bach Toccata And Fugue In D Minor 1707 scary iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
5 Rossini William Tell Overture 1829 horses iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
6 Pachelbel Canon In D 1694 wedding iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
7 Strauss Blue Danube 1866 cartoon iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
8 Orff Carmina Burana: O Fortuna 1936 scary iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
9 Strauss, R Also Sprach Zarathustra 1896 impending iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
10 Offenbach Orpheus In The Underworld: Infernal Galop 1858 cartoon iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
11 Handel Messiah: Hallelujah Chorus 1741 joyful iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
12 Bizet Carmen: Les Toreadors 1845 lively iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
13 Khachaturian Gayane: Sabre Dance 1942 circus iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
14 Beethoven Symphony No. 9: Ode To Joy 1824 joyful iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
15 Elgar Pomp And Circumstance March
No. 1 1901 graduation iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
16 Grieg Peer Gynt: In The Hall Of The Mountain King 1875 scary iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
17 Ponchielli La Gioconda: Dance Of The Hours 1876 cartoon iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
18 Liszt Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 1847 cartoon iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
19 Mendelssohn Midsummer Night's Dream: Wedding March 1842 wedding iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
20 Rimsky-Korsakov Tale Of Tsar Saltan: Flight Of The Bumblebee 1900 cartoon iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
21 Gershwin Rhapsody In Blue 1924 piano iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
22 Beethoven Moonlight Sonata 1801 sad iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
23 Ravel Bolero 1928 seductive iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
24 Tchaikovsky Nutcracker: Dance Of The Sugar-Plum Fairy 1892 Christmas iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
25 Rosas Over The Waves 1884 circus iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
26 Bach Air On The G String 1723 light iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
27 Mozart Magic Flute: Queen Of The Night 1791 opera iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
28 Beethoven Für Elise 1810 piano iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
29 Fucik Entry Of The Gladiators 1897 circus iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
30 Delibes Lakmé: Flower Duet 1882 opera iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
31 Dukas Sorcerer's Apprentice 1897 whimsical iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
32 Copland Rodeo: Hoedown 1942 adventure iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
33 Wagner Die Walküre: Ride Of The Valkyries 1856 powerful iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
34 Bach Cantata 147: Jesu, Joy Of Man's Desiring 1723 wedding iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazon
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100 Strauss Sr. Radetzky March 1848 march iTunesiTunes AmazonAmazonPewDiePie
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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PewDiePie
PewDiePie at PAX 2015 crop.jpg
Kjellberg at PAX 2015
Born Felix Arvid Ulf Kjellberg
24 October 1989 (age 29)
Gothenburg, Sweden
Residence Brighton, England, United Kingdom
Nationality Swedish
Occupation
YouTuber actor
Partner(s) Marzia Bisognin (2011–present; engaged)
YouTube information
Channel
PewDiePie
Years active 2010–present
Genre
Let's Play vlog comedy satire
Subscribers 89.3 million
(14 March 2019)
Total views 20.7 billion
(14 March 2019)
Network None (formerly Machinima and later Maker Studios)
Associated acts
Marzia Bisognin MrBeast Jacksepticeye Markiplier CinnamonToastKen h3h3Productions Emma Blackery PJ Liguori Jack Douglass iDubbbz Grandayy
Play buttons
Subscriber and view counts updated as of 11 March 2019.
Website represent.com/PewDiePie
Signature
Felix Arvid Ulf Kjellberg Signature.svg
Felix Arvid Ulf Kjellberg[4] (/ˈʃɛlbɜːrɡ/ SHEL-burg;[5] Swedish: [feːlɪks arvɪd ɵlf ²ɕɛlbærj] (About this soundlisten);[c] born 24 October 1989),[7] known online as PewDiePie (/ˈpjuːdipaɪ/ PEW-dee-py), is a Swedish YouTuber, comedian and video game player–commentator, best known for his YouTube video content, which has mainly consisted of Let's Play commentaries, vlogs, and comedic formatted shows.

Born in Gothenburg, Sweden, Kjellberg originally pursued a degree in industrial economics and technology management at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg. In 2010, during his time at the university, he registered a YouTube account under the name PewDiePie. The following year, he dropped out of Chalmers after losing interest in his degree field, much to the dismay of his parents. After failing to earn an apprenticeship with an advertising agency in Scandinavia, he then decided to focus on creating content for his YouTube channel. In order to fund his videos, Kjellberg began selling prints of his Photoshop art projects and worked at a hot dog stand. Kjellberg soon gathered a rapidly increasing online following, and in July 2012, his channel surpassed one million subscribers.

On 15 August 2013, Kjellberg became the most-subscribed user on YouTube, being briefly surpassed in late 2013 by YouTube Spotlight. The channel has maintained the top position since recapturing the distinction on 23 December 2013,[d] and has amassed over 89 million subscribers as of March 2019.[9] From 29 December 2014 to 14 February 2017, Kjellberg's channel was the most-viewed YouTube channel. As of February 2019, the channel has received over 20 billion video views, ranking as the 8th-most viewed on the platform.[9]

Kjellberg's most noted YouTube content includes his Let's Play-styled video game commentaries, particularly of the horror genre. Many of his early videos consisted of him expressively reacting to the frightening elements of horror games, although he shortly broke his focus away from horror and played games of varying genres. While maintaining a focus on video game commentaries, Kjellberg began incorporating comedic vlogs into his content output with an increasing frequency. In the mid-to-late 2010s, Kjellberg began producing formatted vlogs that had a concentration on Internet culture and interactivity with his audience. His content has been praised as genuine and unfiltered, but also received as abrasive, and in some cases, met with controversy. As a result of an early 2017 controversy regarding allegations of anti-Semitism in several of Kjellberg's videos, Maker Studios—the multi-channel network (MCN) he was signed to—ended their partnership with him. While he criticised the coverage of the situation and defended his content as jokes that were taken out of context, he conceded its offensiveness.

The prevailing nickname used by media outlets for Kjellberg's fanbase is the "Bro Army",[e] although Kjellberg has also referred to his fanbase as "Squad Fam" and "nine-year-olds". Kjellberg has raised money for charities, encouraging his audience to donate to charity drives. Due to his popularity, Kjellberg's coverage of indie games has created an Oprah effect, boosting sales for titles he plays. In 2016, Time named him one of "The World's 100 Most Influential People".[11] Kjellberg lives in Brighton with his fiancée, Italian Internet personality and fashion designer Marzia Bisognin.


Contents
1 Early life and education
2 Internet career
2.1 YouTube content format
2.1.1 Production and output
2.1.2 Style
2.2 History
2.2.1 Early years (2010–2012)
2.2.2 Becoming the most-subscribed user (2013)
2.2.3 Continued growth (2014–2015)
2.2.4 YouTube Red, Revelmode, and style change (2015–2017)
2.2.5 Controversies, release from network, and streaming (2017)
2.2.6 Formatted shows, further controversies and T-Series (2018–present)
3 Public image and influence
3.1 Channel demographics and fan base
3.2 Media reception
3.3 Influence on video games
3.4 Income
3.5 Relationships with brands
4 Philanthropy
5 Appearances in other media
6 Other ventures
7 Personal life
8 Filmography
9 Gameography
10 Discography
11 Awards
12 See also
13 Notes
14 References
15 Further reading
16 External links
Early life and education

Entrance to Chalmers University of Technology, which Kjellberg dropped out of.
Kjellberg was born and raised in Gothenburg, Sweden.[12] He was born to Lotta Kristine Johanna (née Hellstrand, born 7 May 1958) and Ulf Christian Kjellberg (born 8 January 1957), and grew up with his sister.[13] His mother, a former CIO, was named the 2010 CIO of the Year in Sweden.[13] His father is also a corporate executive.[14]

During his early schooling life, he was interested in art, and has detailed that he would draw popular video game characters such as Mario and Sonic the Hedgehog, as well as play video games on his Super Nintendo Entertainment System.[7][15] During high school, he would skip classes to play video games at an Internet café with friends; on this topic, Kjellberg has commented, "Sweden has a great culture around gaming."[15] He then went on to pursue a degree in industrial economics and technology management at Chalmers University of Technology, but left the university in 2011.[16] On his decision, Kjellberg has stated, "Thinking about it now, it was utterly absurd. To get into Chalmers for industrial economics you need straight A's, but somehow I was happier selling hot dogs and making my own gaming-videos."[6] While his reason for leaving Chalmers has often been reported as a want to focus on his YouTube career,[16] in 2017, Kjellberg clarified, "Why does everyone get this story wrong? [...] I dropped out of university because I didn't like it. To drop out of university to pursue YouTube, that'd just be fucking stupid."[17] He added that "industrial management and economics [was] boring as hell [...] [and] I couldn't relate to fucking anyone."[17]

Kjellberg has also shared that he "loved Photoshop", wanting to work on photo manipulation art using Adobe Photoshop rather than be in school.[17] Relating to this passion, he entered Photoshop contests and almost earned an apprenticeship at "one of the best advertising agencies in Scandinavia."[17] He was also interested in creating content on YouTube, and after not earning the apprenticeship, he sold limited edition prints of his Photoshopped images in order to purchase a computer to work on YouTube videos.[17]

Internet career
YouTube content format
Early in his career, Kjellberg's content mainly consisted of videos under the Let's Play umbrella.[18] His commentaries of horror games made up his best known content during this early stage, although he eventually expanded out of this niche while having his channel maintain a mostly gaming identity.[19] Unlike conventional walkthroughs, Kjellberg devoted his Let's Play videos to "sharing gaming moments on YouTube with my fam."[20] Variety details that "PewDiePie acts like he's spending time with a friend. He begins each video introducing himself in a high-pitched, goofy voice, drawing out the vowels of his YouTube moniker, then delves into the videos."[18] ESPN noted that Kjellberg typically performed a "Brofist" gesture at the end of his videos.[21] Kjellberg often referred to his fan base as the "Bro Army" and addresses his audience as "bros".[22] Later on during his YouTube career, Kjellberg stopped referring to his fan base as the "Bro Army", and began frequently using the terms "Squad Fam", and later "9 year olds", in his videos.[23][24]

As his channel grew, he began to branch out in terms of his video content, uploading vlogs, in addition to live-action and animated comedy shorts.[15] Kjellberg has also uploaded music onto his channel, often accompanied by an animation or fan art. Regarding his music videos, Kjellberg has collaborated with The Gregory Brothers (also known as Schmoyoho), Roomie, and Party in Backyard.[25][26][27]

Production and output
During the early portion of his YouTube career, Kjellberg refused to hire any editor or outside assistance to help with his video output; stating, "I want YouTube to be YouTube."[28] In October 2014, Swedish magazine Icon detailed that "he has no manager, no assistant, or friend to help out with work-related contacts."[29] That month however, while speaking to Rhett and Link on their Ear Biscuits podcast, Kjellberg expressed that he would seek an editor in 2015.[30] In 2016, Kjellberg thanked two other content creators for "helping [him] out with videos".[31] In February 2017, Kjellberg stated in his My Response video, "I'm just a guy. It's literally just me. There's not a producer out there [...] there's no writer, there's no camera guy."[32] The following month, Kjellberg expressed he was looking for a U.K.-based production assistant.[31] In July, Kjellberg commented that a couple months prior, he "had an office [... and] a couple employees" to assist with his content creation, due to him thinking he needed to "be more 'professional'".[33]

Kjellberg has been noted by both himself and media outlets to put out videos with a high frequency, a practice he first scaled down in 2014.[28] By early 2017, he had uploaded almost 3,500 videos to his channel, around 400 of which have been made private.[34] Kjellberg has been frequently cited for making videos and statements expressing his feelings of burnout from frequently creating content for the platform, and its effect on his mental health.[35][36] In March 2017, Kjellberg commented that his channel was running on a daily output, stating, "[there's] a lot of challenges in doing daily content, it's stupid. I really shouldn't be doing it, I really should just fucking go back and upload twice a week or some shit, and then take a step back, but I still really, really love the daily challenge—the daily grind—of just being like, 'hey, I'm gonna make a video today, no matter what.' And sometimes it really works, and sometimes it doesn't."[37]

On the technical aspect of his videos, Kjellberg spoke about how his early videos would feature raw footage, although he later began to dedicate time to edit his videos.[38] Icon noted that he uses Adobe Premiere Pro to edit his videos.[29]

Style
The nature of Kjellberg's video content has been described by various outlets as goofy, energetic, obnoxious and filled with profanity.[39][40][41][42] However, many of the same outlets concede that Kjellberg's content is genuine and unfiltered.[39][42] Sarah Begley of Time said his clips contained "charismatic narration".[43] Chris Reed of The Wall St. Cheat Sheet said it contained "off-the-cuff running commentary that's characterised by goofy jokes, profanity and loud outbursts."[42] Walker wrote Kjellberg's "chosen mode of sharing his critique happens to be ribald entertainment, an unmediated stream of blurted jokes, startled yelps, goofy voices, politically incorrect comments and pretty much nonstop profanity."[39] Reed adds that these aspects of Kjellberg's videos are what critics find most abrasive, but what fans love the most.[42] Kjellberg resorts occasionally to gameplay, resulting in silent or emotional commentary;[39][42] his playthrough of The Last of Us, it was detailed, left the usually vocal gamer speechless at the ending.[42][44]

In 2016, he examined his older videos and while noting the stylistic changes he had undergone, he expressed specific regret for his casual use of words like gay or retarded in a derogatory sense.[45] In December 2016, Kotaku's Patricia Hernandez wrote about his stylistic changes, explaining that "over the last year, the PewDiePie channel has also had an underlying friction, as Kjellberg slowly distances himself from many of the things that made him famous. He's doing fewer Let's Plays of horror games like Amnesia," and adding, "the PewDiePie of 2016 can still be immature, sure, but [...] a defining aspect of recent PewDiePie videos is existential angst, as he describes the bleak reality of making content for a machine he cannot fully control or understand."[46]

In August 2017, Kjellberg called himself "just a guy making jokes on the Internet."[47] In September, Justin Charity of The Ringer stated, "PewDiePie isn't a comedian in any conventional sense," but described his "hosting style [as] loopy and irreverent in the extreme: He's a little bit stand-up, a little bit shock jock, a little bit 4chan bottom-feeder."[47]

History
Early years (2010–2012)
Kjellberg originally registered a YouTube account under the name "Pewdie" in 2006; he explained that "pew" represents the sound of lasers and "die" means death.[48][7][21] After forgetting the password to this account, he registered the "PewDiePie" YouTube channel on 29 April 2010.[21] After he dropped out of Chalmers, his parents refused to support him,[21] and as a result, he funded his early videos by selling prints of his Photoshop art, as well as working at a hot dog stand.[17][49] On having to work at the stand, Kjellberg stated, "the fact that I could make videos was so much more important to me than [that] I had to spend a few hours a day doing a job that wasn't that prestigious."[49] Five years later, Kjellberg recalled, "I knew people were big at other types of videos, but there was no one big in gaming, and I didn't know you could make money out of it. It was never like a career that I could just quit college to pursue. It was just something I loved to do. And here we are five years later and it's exploded."[49]

In his early years as a YouTube creator, Kjellberg focused on video game commentaries, most notably of horror and action video games.[50][51][52] Some of his earliest videos featured commentaries of mainstream video games including Minecraft and Call of Duty, although he was particularly noted for his Let's Plays of Amnesia: The Dark Descent and its related mods.[19][53] Starting on 2 September 2011,[54] Kjellberg also began posting weekly vlogs under the title of Fridays with PewDiePie.[15]

By December 2011, Kjellberg's channel had around 60,000 subscribers.[21] On 9 May 2012, Kjellberg's channel reached 500,000 subscribers.[55] Around the time his channel earned 700,000 subscribers, Kjellberg spoke at Nonick Conference 2012.[56][57] In July 2012, the channel reached 1 million subscribers,[12] and it reached 2 million subscribers in September.[50] In October, OpenSlate ranked Kjellberg's channel as the No. 1 YouTube channel.[58] That December, Kjellberg signed with Maker Studios, a multi-channel network (MCN) that drives the growth of the channels under it.[21] Prior to his partnership with Maker, he was signed to Machinima, which operates as a rival to Maker.[59] Kjellberg expressed feeling neglected by Machinima, and frustrated with their treatment, Kjellberg hired a lawyer to free him from his contract with the network.[59]

Early in his YouTube career, Kjellberg used rape jokes in his videos.[40] A satirical video mocking Kjellberg's content highlighted his usage of such jokes.[60] Shortly after, Kjellberg attracted criticism and controversy for the jokes, and in October 2012, he addressed the issue through a Tumblr post, writing, "I just wanted to make clear that I'm no longer making rape jokes, as I mentioned before I'm not looking to hurt anyone and I apologise if it ever did."[61] The Globe and Mail stated "unlike many young gamers, he listened when fans and critics alike pointed out their harmful nature, and resolved to stop making rape jokes."[40]

Becoming the most-subscribed user (2013)
On 18 February 2013, the PewDiePie channel reached 5 million subscribers,[21] and in April, Kjellberg was covered in The New York Times after surpassing 6 million subscribers.[62] In May, at the inaugural Starcount Social Stars Awards in Singapore Kjellberg won the award for "Swedish Social Star".[63] Competing against Jenna Marbles, Smosh and Toby Turner,[64] Kjellberg also won the award for "Most Popular Social Show".[65] In July 2013, he overtook Jenna Marbles to become the second most-subscribed YouTube user,[66] and reached 10 million subscribers on 9 July 2013.[21][67]

In August, Kjellberg signed with Maker's gaming sub-network, Polaris.[68] Polaris functioned as a relaunching of The Game Station, Maker's gaming network.[69]

Kjellberg's subscriber count surpassed that of the leading channel, Smosh, on 15 August 2013.[70] Kjellberg received a certificate from Guinness World Records for becoming the most subscribed YouTuber.[71] On 1 November, Kjellberg's channel became the first to reach 15 million subscribers;[72] the following day, the channel was surpassed by YouTube's Spotlight account at the top of the site's subscriber rankings.[73] In the same month, Kjellberg proclaimed his dislike of YouTube's new comment system and disabled the comment section on all of his videos.[74] On 22 December 2013, Kjellberg overtook the YouTube Spotlight channel to once again become the most-subscribed on YouTube.[75][76]

Throughout 2012 and 2013, Kjellberg's channel was one of the fastest growing on YouTube, in terms of subscribers gained.[77] In 2013, the PewDiePie channel went from 3.5 million to just under 19 million subscribers,[78] and by the end of 2013, it was gaining a new subscriber every 1.037 seconds.[79] Billboard reported that the PewDiePie channel gained more subscribers than any other channel in 2013.[80] Additionally, in the second half of 2013, the PewDiePie channel earned just under 1.3 billion video views.[81]

Continued growth (2014–2015)
To this point, Kjellberg's commentaries were best known for featuring horror video games. In 2014, however, he began to more actively play games that interested him, regardless of genre.[19]

In March, Kjellberg updated his video production output, announcing he would be scaling down the frequency of uploads.[28] In August 2014, Maker Studios released an official PewDiePie app for the iPhone, allowing audiences to view his videos, create custom favourite video feeds and share videos with others.[82] Later in the month, Kjellberg uploaded a video, announcing he would permanently disable comments on his YouTube videos.[83] On his decision, Kjellberg stated "I go to the comments and it's mainly spam, it's people self advertising, it's people trying to provoke... just all this stuff that to me, it doesn't mean anything. I don't care about it, I don't want to see it."[84] After disabling comments, Kjellberg continued interacting with his audience through Twitter and Reddit.[85] On 13 October, Kjellberg decided to allow comments on his videos once more, albeit only after approval.[86] However, Kjellberg expressed that he set toggled his comment settings this way so he can redirect people to instead comment on the forums of his Broarmy.net website.[87] In a later video, Kjellberg claimed that disabling comments helped him become happier.[88]

In September 2014, Kjellberg began streaming videos of his co-hosted series, BroKen, onto MLG.tv.[89] Kjellberg co-hosted the series with Kenneth Morrison, better known as CinnamonToastKen, who is also a video game commentator.[90]

In October 2014, Kjellberg began hinting at the possibility that he might not renew his contract with Maker Studios upon its expiration in December 2014.[91] Reports that covered this information also added that Kjellberg expressed his frustrations with the studio's parent company, Disney; Kjellberg was quoted saying, "The fact that Disney bought Maker Studios doesn't really change anything for me. If I ask for help, they reply, but that's all the contact we have. We'll see what happens."[59] Kjellberg mulled the option of launching his own network, rather than resign with Maker, although he has declined to provide in-depth details on the subject.[29][92] However, in light of news outlets reporting his disinterest with Maker, Kjellberg tweeted, "I feel like I was misquoted in the WSJ and I'm really happy with the work that Maker has been doing for me."[93] Kjellberg would ultimately continue creating videos under Maker. His relationship with Maker developed into the network establishing an official PewDiePie website, app, and online store to sell merchandise, while Kjellberg promoted Maker's media interests and gave the network a share of his YouTube ad revenue.[15]

In 2014 alone, Kjellberg's account amassed nearly 14 million new subscribers and over 4.1 billion video views; both figures were higher than any other user.[94][95] According to Social Blade, a website which tracks YouTube channel statistics, on 29 December 2014, Kjellberg's channel surpassed emimusic's video view count, at over 7.2 billion views, to become the most-viewed channel on the website.[96][97]

In early 2015, Nintendo launched its Creator Program, in order to share revenue with YouTube video creators who feature gameplay of their products in videos.[98] Kjellberg joined various gamers in criticising the programme.[99] Kjellberg called the programme a "slap in the face to the YouTube channels that do focus on Nintendo games exclusively", adding, "The people who have helped and showed passion for Nintendo's community are the ones left in the dirt the most."[99] Despite criticisms from Kjellberg and other gamers alike, Nintendo experienced more requests from YouTube creators than expected, causing an extension on the 72-hour wait time for video approval through the programme.[99] Additionally, Kjellberg, stated, "I'll still play Nintendo games that I want to play on my channel as usual. I'm lucky to be in a situation where losing ad revenue on a few videos won't matter. However, many people on YouTube are not in that situation."[100] Ultimately, the focal point of Kjellberg's concern and criticism was toward the approval of a video which Nintendo has to administer, and the potential of that approval process being motivated by biased intentions.[100]

During July 2015, Kjellberg's videos were documented to receive over 300 million views per month.[101] On 6 September, Kjellberg's YouTube account became the first to eclipse 10 billion video views.[14][102]

YouTube Red, Revelmode, and style change (2015–2017)
During September 2015, Kjellberg teased about having a role in a series, stating that he was in Los Angeles for the show's shooting.[103] Although not many details were revealed at the time, it was later announced that the series would be titled Scare PewDiePie.[104] The series premiered the following February.[105]

In January 2016, Kjellberg announced a partnership with Maker Studios to produce Revelmode, a sub-network of Maker, that would showcase Kjellberg and his friends on YouTube in original series.[106] After the deal, the head of Maker Studios, Courtney Holt, stated, "we're thrilled to be doubling down with Felix."[106] Along with Kjellberg, eight other YouTubers signed to the network upon its creation: CinnamonToastKen, Marzia, Dodger, Emma Blackery, Jacksepticeye, Jelly, Kwebbelkop, and Markiplier.[106] Three YouTubers—Cryaotic, KickThePJ and Slogoman—would later join the sub-network after its launch.[107][108]

Throughout 2016, Kjellberg's video style change became more apparent than the tweaks he implemented in the past (see above for more).[38] While continuing to produce fewer Let's Play videos about horror games, his style of humour also changed; Kjellberg commented in a December 2016 video, "I think the thing is that I have a lot of younger audience [members], and I think my humour got drier, and they don't get it."[46]

On 20 October, Kjellberg launched a second channel, under the name Jack septiceye2.[109] The name is derived from his friend and fellow YouTube video game commentator, Jacksepticeye.[46] By December, Kotaku reported the Jack septiceye2 channel had garnered 1.4 million subscribers, despite having only one upload available to watch.[46]

On 2 December, he uploaded a video in which he discussed his frustration with the issue of YouTube accounts experiencing an unexplained loss of subscribers and views.[110] Kjellberg expressed, "I find that a lot of people that work with YouTube, almost anyone, have no idea what it's like to work as a content creator, as someone who's built this for years and really cared about it."[46] On this issue, a Google representative provided a comment to Ars Technica, stating "Some creators have expressed concerns around a drop in their subscriber numbers. We've done an extensive review and found there have been no decreases in creators subscriber numbers beyond what normally happens when viewers either unsubscribe from a creator's channel or when YouTube removes spammed subscribers".[111]

On 8 December, Kjellberg's channel reached 50 million subscribers, becoming the first YouTube channel to do so.[112] After reaching the milestone, Kjellberg tweeted "will delete tomorrow 5 pm gmt," in reference to his channel, before later uploading a celebratory video featuring fireworks.[112] Ultimately, he did not delete his PewDiePie channel, and instead shut down the joke Jack septiceye2 channel, stating "You know when you make a joke and it just blows up way bigger than you'd imagined?"[111] This received negative reception from Fortune. The publication's Mathew Ingram opined, "this is just a temper tantrum by a man-baby who makes millions of dollars playing video games," adding, "at first glance, the video in which he threatens to delete his channel seems like the whining of a rich, entitled celebrity who has noticed that his videos aren't getting as many views as they used to, and blames the platform for not supporting him as much as he thinks they should."[113] On 18 December 2016, he received a custom Play Button from YouTube as a reward for hitting 50 million subscribers.[3]

On 14 February 2017, his channel's total video view count was surpassed by Indian record label T-Series at the top of YouTube's view rankings, according to Social Blade.[114][115]

Controversies, release from network, and streaming (2017)
In January 2017, Kjellberg began to receive criticism for his non-gaming videos. According to International Business Times, one of the videos "appeared to show" him using the racial slur "nigger",[116] which caused #PewdiepieIsOverParty to trend worldwide on Twitter.[117] A few days later, Kjellberg created further controversy, when he uploaded a video featuring him reviewing the website Fiverr, which allows people to sell a service for US$5. In the video, Kjellberg shows his reaction to a duo he had paid to display the message "DEATH TO ALL JEWS" on a sign.[116][118] He immediately apologised within the same video stating, "I am sorry. I didn't think they would actually do it. I feel partially responsible," adding "I'm not anti-Semitic, [...] so don't get the wrong idea. It was a funny meme, and I didn't think it would work, okay."[116] Kjellberg received criticism from some users in the video's comment section, as well as from some media outlets.[116] As a result of this video, both Kjellberg and the duo were banned from Fiverr, prompting the latter to upload an apology video stating that they did not understand the meaning of the sign, and that they were sorry to all Jews.[119] Kjellberg later explained that the video was done in jest and attempted to highlight the ridiculous things which can be provided as paid services on the Internet.[120]

"I've made some jokes that people don't like. And you know what? If people don't like my jokes, I fully respect that. I fully understand that. I acknowledge that I took things too far, and that's something I definitely will keep in mind moving forward, but the reaction and the outrage has been nothing but insanity."
–PewDiePie, My Response video (February 2017)[32]
In February, The Wall Street Journal reported on the incident, while also adding that since August 2016, Kjellberg has included anti-Semitic jokes or Nazi imagery in nine separate videos.[121] The publication reported he removed three of the videos, including the one from January 2017.[121][122] In a 12 February Tumblr post, Kjellberg expressed: "I am in no way supporting any kind of hateful attitudes, [...] I think of the content that I create as entertainment, and not a place for any serious political commentary," and conceded, "though this was not my intention, I understand that these jokes were ultimately offensive."[120][122] In his post, he also reiterated he does not support anti-Semitic groups.[120] Kjellberg's motivation for his Tumblr post was partially driven by the fact that neo-Nazi and white supremacist groups and publications, such as The Daily Stormer, were referencing and praising him for his jokes.[32][123]

On 13 February, the Disney-owned Maker Studios multi-channel network cut its ties with Kjellberg because of the aforementioned controversy and the additional videos containing allegedly anti-Semitic jokes.[122][124] Maker stated that "although [he had] created a following by being provocative and irreverent, he clearly went too far in this case and the resulting videos are inappropriate."[124] Google also took action, dropping him from the Google Preferred advertising programme, as well as cancelling the Scare PewDiePie YouTube Red series.[125][126] Various media journalists and outlets joined the Wall Street Journal in criticising Kjellberg.[127][128][129] Kirsty Major of The Independent, Arwa Mahdawi of The Guardian and Ben Kuchera of Polygon, were all critical of Kjellberg's defense of his content as jokes taken out of context, opining that his content helps normalise ideologies such as fascism, neo-Nazism and white supremacy.[127][128][129]

Many in the YouTube community, including Ethan Klein of h3h3Productions, a Jewish YouTube sketch comedian, who is also friends with Kjellberg, as well as YouTube news commentator Philip DeFranco, and popular gamers Markiplier and Jacksepticeye, as well as many others, defended Kjellberg and criticised the way media handled the incident.[130][131] On 16 February, Kjellberg himself responded in a video entitled My Response, in which he apologised to those who were offended by his previous videos and which he also criticised the reporting by the media.[32][132][133] He also states The Wall Street Journal framed his jokes as "posts" and took them out of context.[134] One of the examples Kjellberg gives of this includes one of his vlogs, in which he expresses frustration at people creating swastikas in his Tuber Simulator video game.[135]

In March, Kjellberg confirmed that Revelmode "doesn't exist anymore," in wake of the controversy surrounding the Wall Street Journal's allegations of anti-Semitism toward him.[37] While announcing this, he revealed that he worked on the company for about 3 or 4 years.[37]

In April, while still continuing to upload new content onto YouTube, Kjellberg created Netglow, a crowdsourced channel on the livestreaming service Twitch.[136] On Netglow, he started streaming Best Club, a weekly live stream show.[136] Best Club premiered on 9 April.[136] Kjellberg commented that his decision to create Netglow was in the works prior to the aforementioned allegations of anti-Semitic themes in his videos.[136] Business Insider detailed that Kjellberg's first stream amassed around 60,000 viewers, and that Netglow had accumulated 93,000 subscribers to that point.[137]

In September 2017, Kjellberg drew criticism again when he used the racial slur "nigger" during an outburst at another player while live-streaming PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds.[138] As a response to the incident, Campo Santo co-founder Sean Vanaman referred to Kjellberg as "worse than a closeted racist", announced that Campo Santo would file copyright strikes against Kjellberg's videos featuring the studio's game Firewatch, and encouraged other game developers to do the same.[139][140] Kjellberg later uploaded a short video apologizing for the language he used during the live-stream, expressing "I'm not going to make any excuses to why [the slur] did [slip out] because there are no excuses for it. I'm disappointed in myself because it seems like I've learned nothing from all these past controversies, [using the slur] was not okay. I'm really sorry if I offended, hurt or disappointed anyone with all of this. Being in the position that I am, I should know better."[141]

Formatted shows, further controversies and T-Series (2018–present)
Further information: PewDiePie vs T-Series
In 2018, Paul MacInnes of The Guardian wrote about Kjellberg's YouTube content; he noted that each week Kjellberg posted videos featuring one of three series formats, comparing this uploading pattern to television programming.[142] The three series listed were You Laugh You Lose, which features Kjellberg watching "a stream of supposedly humorous, or perhaps laughable clips" while trying to not laugh; Last Week I Asked You, having begun as a parody and homage to Jack Douglass' Yesterday I Asked You, he challenges his audience and reviews the output; and Meme Review, in which he reviews popular Internet memes.[142][143][144] Furthermore, Kjellberg then began a book club-styled series.[142] Kjellberg's own enjoyment with the Book Club series was also noted.[142] Kjellberg also began Pew News, a satirical series that has Kjellberg present and discuss recent news stories while in character, often as his own fictional characters that are mostly the ones named after CNN hosts, such as Gloria Borger or Poppy Harlow and sometimes, an amalgamation of the two names.[145] Pew News parodies both mainstream news channels, such as CNN, and YouTube news channels, such as DramaAlert.[145]

In May, Kjellberg attracted controversy for using the term "Twitch thots" in one of his videos, at a moment when a clip of Twitch streamer Alinity was playing.[146] The controversy was further fueled by Alinity's response, in which she asked on stream if she could "copy strike" Kjellberg, referring to tagging Kjellberg's video with a copyright violation claim, resulting in a copyright strike for his channel.[146] The video would be removed from YouTube, although Alinity stated the video was tagged with a copyright claim by CollabDRM, a company that copyright strikes videos on YouTube on behalf of content creators.[146][147] Due to Kjellberg's video being removed, Alinity received backlash from some online users.[146] She responded to this backlash by stating that the "rampant sexism in online communities" caused her to react in the way she did, and additionally argued that Kjellberg's "Twitch thot" comments degraded women.[146] Kjellberg apologized for using the term, although Alinity's further comments and refusal to accept his apology led him to argue that she was pushing a "victim narrative".[146][147] Kjellberg also criticized Alinity for wearing revealing clothing and acting provocatively in her streams.[147][148] Following Kjellberg's videos, Alinity told Vice, "I'm gonna be honest with you, if this wasn't my job this would have pushed me off the Internet a very long time ago. It makes me wonder maybe this is why women are so underrepresented on Twitch in general."[147][148] Shortly after, Alinity completely backed away from the controversy.[147]

In July, Kjellberg posted a meme with singer Demi Lovato's face; the meme jokingly referenced Lovato's struggles with addiction. As a result, he received criticism from online users, including fans of Lovato and others struggling with addiction.[149] On 26 July, he issued a tweet reading: "Deleted meme. I didnt mean anything with it and I didnt fully know about the situation. I realize now it was insensitive, sorry!"[149]

On 5 October, Kjellberg uploaded a diss track against Indian record label T-Series titled "TSERIES DISS TRACK" (later changed to "bitch lasagna") in response to their YouTube channel being projected to surpass his channel in subscribers.[150] On the prospect of being surpassed by T-Series in terms of subscriber count, Kjellberg stated, "I don't really care about T-Series, [...] but I think if YouTube does shift in a way where it does feel more corporate, then something else will take its place."[151] Variety noted that many fellow YouTubers, including MrBeast and Markiplier, encouraged their viewers to subscribe to the PewDiePie channel.[150] Efforts to keep the Kjellberg's channel ahead of T-Series in terms of subscribers also included multiple instances of hackers exploiting several thousands of printers to print out messages asking people to subscribe to PewDiePie, unsubscribe from T-Series, and upgrade their printer security.[152][153][154] Bhushan Kumar, the chairman and managing director of T-Series, commented "I am really not bothered about this race. I don't even know why PewDiePie is taking this so seriously. He's getting his people to push him, promote him. We are not competing with him."[155] Online campaigns to subscribe to PewDiePie greatly assisted Kjellberg's subscriber count; his channel gained 6.62 million subscribers in December 2018 alone, compared to the 7 million subscribers gained in all of 2017.[156]

On 11 November 2018, Kjellberg featured YouTube comedian and voice actor Pete Accetturo besides conservative political commentator and writer Ben Shapiro in one of his episodes of Meme Review.[157] A segment from the video involving Elon Musk bursting into laughter at a meme involving a deer submerged in a pool captioned "Why my dolphin not working lol" proceded to go viral.[158]

In a video uploaded in early December, Kjellberg gave a shoutout to several small content creators on YouTube, recommending his viewers to subscribe to them. Among those creators was "E;R", who Kjellberg highlighted for a video essay on Netflix's Death Note.[159] Shortly thereafter, The Verge's Julia Alexander noted that the video in question used imagery of the Charlottesville car attack, and that the channel made frequent use of racial and homophobic slurs.[159] Kjellberg addressed the issue, stating he was largely unaware of E;R's content contained outside of the Death Note video essay, and revoked his recommendation of E;R.[159] Kjellberg said he was not only unaware of E;R's insensitive content, but also the Charlottesville car attack. Aja Romano of Vox stated that racial slurs were used in the video description of one.[160] On 17 December, Kjellberg posted a Pew News video entitled My Response S02E01, in which he criticized what he saw as the reporting of misinformation by the media and online personalities.[161] Kjellberg particularly criticized Vox Media's The Verge and Vox outlets, and denounced claims that he previously tweeted about the Charlottesville car attack.[161]

On 14 December, a student secretly recorded his social studies teacher at Hamilton International Middle School criticizing Kjellberg for allegedly promoting racism and anti-Semitism, The teacher stated in the video: "Every time you retweet one of these things or every time you promote this idea, you are promoting ignorance, racism, genocide and anti-Semitism,”. The teacher was heavily criticized for his statements and school officials reported threats made against him to the Seattle Police Department, although they were unsubstantiated.[162]

On 22 February 2019, Kjellberg uploaded an episode of his show Meme Review featuring entrepreneur Elon Musk and Rick and Morty co-creator Justin Roiland.[163][164]

On 12 March 2019, Kjellberg uploaded an episode of his show Pew News in which he mentioned the 2019 Pulwama terrorist attack in which 40 Indian paramilitary troops were killed by terrorist organizations based in Pakistan. Following the attack, T-series had temporarily removed a few songs by Pakistani artists on its YouTube channel as part of a larger move by India to isolate Pakistan economically, a move that Kjellberg disagreed with.[165] Kjellberg went on to thank his Pakistani fans for subscribing to his channel as a means to take revenge against T-series.[166] This drew sharp criticism from several members of the online community as well as media outlets – following which PewDiePie deleted the part of his video which was in question, and also issued a clarification on his Twitter page.[167]

On 15 March 2019, Kjellberg tweeted: "Just heard news of the devastating reports from New Zealand Christchurch. I feel absolutely sickened having my name uttered by this person. My heart and thoughts go out to the victims, families and everyone affected by this tragedy." In response to one of the of the attackers in the Christchurch mosque shootings saying "Subscribe to PewDiePie" during his livestream before carrying out the attack.[168]

Public image and influence
Since breaking through on YouTube with his Let's Play-styled videos, Kjellberg has emerged as one of the most noted and influential online personalities. In September 2014, Rob Walker of Yahoo! called Kjellberg's popularity "insane", writing, that it "strikes me as considerably more curious – I mean, you know who Rihanna is, but would you recognise this kid if he were standing in line behind you at the bank?"[39] Walker, among other reporters and some casual gamers, have questioned the reasons for his popularity,[39][42] while other reporters have criticised his rise in notability.[41] Walker commented on Kjellberg's interaction with his audience, writing, "While he can be raucous and crude, it always comes across as genuine. He constantly addresses his audience as a bunch of peer-like friends, as opposed to distant, genuflecting fans. He's certainly more than willing to make fun of himself in the process."[39] In 2015, Ross Miller of The Verge wrote, "Love it or hate it, his success – like so many other YouTube personalities – isn't just in playing games but actually connecting and talking directly to an audience. No agent, press release, or any other intermediary. He just hit record."[169]

In response to his 2017 controversies, The Ringer's Justin Charity commented, "PewDiePie's occasional, reactionary irreverence has become a core component of his appeal. Likewise, for critics and fans who value inclusivity — and among outside observers who view PewDiePie's conduct as inexplicably frequent in the news — PewDiePie represents all that is wrong and alienating about games culture."[47] In 2018, Paul MacInnes of The Guardian wrote, "Given the scale of his audience and his influence, not much is written about PewDiePie. Tech sites like The Verge and Polygon report on him and often critique him severely. But in the mainstream media, his name has broken through only either as a result of novelty or scandal," and added "PewdiePie's content is written about even less often."[142]

In 2015, Kjellberg was included on Time's list of the 30 most influential people on the Internet, with the publication writing that his channel "broadcasts some of the most-watched programs in pop culture."[43] Later in 2015, Kjellberg was featured on the cover of Variety's "Famechangers" issue, with the magazine ranking him as the "#1 Famechanger", or "those whose influence stands head and shoulders above the rest".[170] The following year, Time included him on their Time 100 list, with South Park co-creator Trey Parker writing in his entry, "I know it might seem weird, especially to those of us from an older generation, that people would spend so much time watching someone else play video games [...] But I choose to see it as the birth of a new art form. And I don't think anyone should underestimate its most powerful artist."[11] Forbes wrote that "[Kjellberg's] overall brand suffered earlier this year [2017] when he included anti-Semitic content in nine of his videos," when citing their reason for not ranking him as the top gaming influence.[171] Forbes still included Kjellberg in the Gaming category of their June 2017 "Top Influencers" list.[172]

Kjellberg has himself stated that he dislikes being called "famous", and has been referred to as "shy and quiet", and "much more reserved in real life," by a colleague who worked with him on Scare PewDiePie.[173] In a Rolling Stone article, Kjellberg admitted to being shocked by his fame; he recalled a gaming event near his hometown, stating "I remember there were five security guards yelling at a crowd to back up – it was out of control. It was shocking to find myself in that situation, where I was that celebrity person."[15] At the 2013 Social Star Awards, Kjellberg greeted his fans personally despite security warning him against doing so.[48][174] Kjellberg also mentioned this event to Rolling Stone, stating, "I didn't even understand they were screaming for me at first."[15]

Channel demographics and fan base
Kjellberg's channel appeals strongly to younger viewers, a group Google refers to as Generation C for their habits of "creation, curation, connection and community".[20][175] According to a 2014 survey commissioned by Variety, Kjellberg along with a few other YouTube personalities have been reported to be more influential and popular than mainstream celebrities, such as Jennifer Lawrence, among US teenagers aged 13 through 18.[176] His rise to fame has been used as "a great example of how the emerging society gives extensive opportunities to individuals with great ideas, courage, and, of course, a significant portion of luck as opposed to the old society."[177] Studies of the gaming community on YouTube have shown that 95% of gamers engage in watching online videos related to gaming, which has been linked to be an important reason for Kjellberg's popularity.[178] In a 2017 video, Kjellberg shared a screenshot of data provided by YouTube regarding his channel statistics, which suggested his largest demographic was among the 18–24 age group, followed by the 25–34 age group.[142]

As aforementioned, the "Bro Army" was a name often used to refer to Kjellberg's fan base by both himself and media outlets.[21][179][180] In the late 2010s, Kjellberg used the term "army of 9-year-olds" to refer to his fan base.[24] The fan base has been the target of criticism; in July 2018, Wired published an article, referring to Kjellberg's fan base as "toxic", stating that "it's not just that they've stuck with the Swedish gamer/alleged comedian as he peppered his videos with racial slurs, rape jokes, anti-Semitism, and homophobia for nearly a decade (though that's bad enough). It's also that they insist that PewDiePie somehow isn't being hateful at all."[180]

Relating to his responsibility to his audience, Kjellberg has stated, "many people see me as a friend they can chill with for 15 minutes a day," adding, "The loneliness in front of the computer screens brings us together. But I never set out to be a role model; I just want to invite them to come over to my place."[29] Correlating with this note, his audience has been reported to provide positive remarks about him; some of his viewers created and contributed to a thread expressing that he has made them happier and feel better about themselves.[19] Conversely, during an informal Twitter poll conducted by one Kotaku reporter, respondents described him as "annoying" and an "obnoxious waste of time."[19] Additionally, Rolling Stone has documented the existence of several Reddit threads dedicated to sharing disparaging views of Kjellberg.[15]

Media reception
Responses to Kjellberg's content are mixed; Anthony Taormina of Game Rant wrote, "It's no secret that as his popularity continues to grow, PewDiePie has become an increasingly divisive figure. While some love the YouTuber for the entertainment he provides, others see PewDiePie as the singular representation of our gameplay commentary obsessed culture."[181] Chris Reed of The Wall St. Cheat Sheet commented on the divisive opinions about Kjellberg, stating, "PewDiePie is not universally adored [...] the great divide in opinion on PewDiePie seems to be largely generational. Older people are less likely to subscribe to YouTube channels, or to pay much credence to YouTube personalities in general. Many younger viewers, on the other hand, see him as endlessly entertaining and relatable."[42]

When critiquing Kjellberg's early video game commentary content, Swedish columnist Lars Lindstrom commented positively, stating "that Felix Kjellberg [having] a comic talent is indisputable. It is both amazingly awful and amazingly funny when a father bikes around with his son in the game Happy Wheels and both get crushed and bloody again and again and PewDiePie improvises absurd comments as the game continues. The secret is that he really loves to play these games and that he has fun doing it."[16] Kjellberg has also been received negatively by the media, often being reported as an "inexplicable phenomenon."[19] Andrew Wallenstein of Variety heavily criticised Kjellberg, following his channel becoming the most-subscribed on YouTube, describing his videos as "aggressive stupidity" and "psycho babble."[41] However, both Walker and Reed have commented positively on Kjellberg's intelligence. Walker stated Kjellberg is "clearly" smart based on when he speaks directly to his audience,[39] and Reed opined "He's much more thoughtful and self-aware than he seems in many of his videos."[42]

Following the controversy regarding alleged anti-Semitic content in his videos, many media publications both in and outside of the gaming and tech industries severely criticised Kjellberg's content. These outlets suggested that Kjellberg's content contained and promoted fascist, white supremacist, and alt-right ideologies.[127][128][182] A Wired article covering the controversy was originally titled "PewDiePie Was Always Kinda Racist—But Now He's a Hero to Nazis", although this was later changed to "PewDiePie's Fall Shows the Limits of 'LOL JK'.[182] Writing for The New York Times, John Herman commented "[Kjellberg] bemoaned [YouTube's] structure and the way it had changed; he balked at its limits and took joy in causing offense and flouting rules. Over time, he grew into an unlikely, disorienting and insistently unserious political identity: He became YouTube's very own populist reactionary."[183] Over a year after the controversy, MacInnes opined that Kjellberg "is funny, intelligent, innovative and highly charismatic [...] to call him an alt-right agitator would perhaps be unfair as he has never publicly identified with the proto-fascist movement. But he shares much of their culture and amplifies it across the world. People should pay PewDiePie more attention."[142]

Influence on video games
Kjellberg has been noted to support video games from indie developers, often playing through them in his videos.[50] His commentaries have had a positive effect on sales of indie games, with The Washington Post writing that "gamemakers have observed a kind of Oprah effect."[14][178][184] For instance the developers of McPixel stated, "The largest force driving attention to McPixel at that time were 'Let's Play' videos. Mostly by Jesse Cox and PewDiePie."[185] Kjellberg has also been confirmed to have positively influenced the sales of Slender: The Eight Pages and Goat Simulator.[19][29] Although games being featured on Kjellberg's channel have reportedly contributed to their commercial success, he has stated, "I just want to play the games, not influence sales."[186]

Kjellberg, along with characters from Amnesia: The Dark Descent, were referred to by a McPixel level designed in his honour.[187] Additionally, in the video game Surgeon Simulator 2013, the Alien Surgery stage features an organ called "Pewdsball" in honour of Kjellberg.[188][189] Kjellberg agreed to allow the developers of Surgeon Simulator 2013 to use his likeness in GOTY IDST, a showering simulation video game.[190][191] Kjellberg was also included as an NPC in the indie game, Party Hard.[192] Kjellberg also had a voice acting role in Pinstripe, a puzzle adventure game.[193]

Income
Kjellberg's earnings have been an often-reported topic by media publications. However, this reporting has frustrated Kjellberg, who has said that he is "tired of talking about how much [he makes]."[194] After extensive media coverage of his earnings, Kjellberg expressed his frustration and suggested that they should rather look at the money he raised for charity.[195]

In March 2014, Kjellberg made an estimated $140,000–$1.4 million from YouTube revenue, according to Social Blade.[196] In June 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that Kjellberg earned $4 million in 2013;[197][198] Kjellberg confirmed on Reddit that the figures were roughly around what he actually earned.[29] In July 2015, the Swedish newspaper Expressen reported that Kjellberg's production company, PewDie Productions AB, reported earnings of 63.7 million SEK ($7.5 million) in 2014.[199][200] The Guardian commented that the reason the media was so captivated by Kjellberg's earnings is that the topic "offers a rare insight into the money being made at the top end of YouTube stardom", adding "it's very rare for any YouTube creator to talk about their earnings publicly, not least because YouTube itself does not encourage it".[49] In 2015, outlets described Kjellberg's income as sizeable, and even "remarkable";[201] Kjellberg appeared at the top of Forbes' October 2015 list of the richest YouTube stars with a reported $12 million earned in 2015.[202]

In December 2016, Forbes named Kjellberg as the highest-earning YouTuber with his annual income reaching $15 million.[203] This was up 20% from 2015, largely due to his YouTube Red series Scare PewDiePie and his book This Book Loves You, which sold over 112,000 copies according to Nielsen Bookscan.[204] According to Forbes, Kjellberg's income dropped to $12 million in 2017, which made him the sixth highest-paid YouTuber during that year.[205] Forbes commented that Kjellberg's income would have been higher had he avoided the pushback from advertisers resulting from the controversies surrounding his videos in 2017.[206]

Relationships with brands
Beginning in April 2014 and spanning into August, Kjellberg, along with his girlfriend Marzia Bisognin, began a marketing campaign for the Legendary Pictures film As Above, So Below.[207][208] Kjellberg's videos for the marketing campaign included a miniseries featuring him participating in the "Catacombs Challenge". The challenge involved Kjellberg searching for three keys in the catacombs to open a container holding "the Philosopher's stone".[209] The couple's videos were able to earn nearly 20 million views.[210] Maker Studios, which both Kjellberg and Bisognin are represented by, brokered the ad deal between the two and Legendary Pictures.[209] In January 2015, Mountain Dew partnered with Kjellberg to launch a fan fiction contest, in which winning fan fictions will be animated into video formats and then uploaded onto his channel.[211] In the same month, a quote from him was used by Techland on Dying Light posters.[212] The quote, which read, "I love this game. It's sooo awesome!", spread controversy as it came from a seemingly advertorial video, featuring him playing Dying Light.[213] In response to the issue, Kjellberg tweeted, "I love this game. It's soooo awesome! – IGN."[214] When another Twitter user mentioned the issue, tagging Kjellberg in their tweet, he responded, "I dont even remember saying this."[214] In January 2019, Kjellberg announced a partnership with energy drink company G Fuel, who have also sponsored Twitch streamer Dr DisRespect and esports organization FaZe Clan.[215][216]

Despite these partnerships, Kjellberg maintains that he conducts very few promotions and works with few brands.[29][217] Additionally, Kjellberg posted on Reddit, "I make more than I need from YouTube", adding, "with that freedom, but also to respect my fans for making that possible, I don't end up doing many endorsements."[218] On this topic, Kjellberg has expressed disappointment when a sizable portion of people misinterpret his intentions; he stated, "if I mention on Twitter that I find this or that Kickstarter project cool, people immediately start to ask what economical interests I might have in it. Things like that can bring me down. But it's not personal; some people just prefer to believe the worst about others at any given time."[29] Eventually, Kjellberg began to work with more brands. He stated that he wants to have "genuine, good relationships with brands," and added "luckily, I'm not dependent on working with brands to do what I do, but when videos get demonetized [...] it's a nice way to counter that."[219]

Philanthropy
Kjellberg's popularity has allowed him to stir support for fundraising drives.[220] In February 2012, Kjellberg ran for King of the Web, an online contest. He lost the overall title; however, he still became the "Gaming King of the Web" for the 1–15 February 2012 voting period.[221] During the following voting period, Kjellberg won and donated his cash winnings to the World Wildlife Fund.[222] He has raised money for the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.[50][222]

Kjellberg also began a "Water Campaign" charity, where his fans could donate money to Charity: Water, in celebration of reaching ten million subscribers.[223] Kjellberg also contributed one dollar to the charity for every 500 views the video announcing the campaign accumulates, up to a maximum of $10,000.[224] Kjellberg had the stated goal of raising US$250,000, at the end of the drive, the amount raised was $446,612.[222][225][226] Kjellberg would organize another charity drive for Charity: Water in February 2016.[227] The drive raised $152,239, surpassing a $100,000 goal.[228]

In celebration of reaching 25 million subscribers in June 2014, Kjellberg, announced another charity drive for Save the Children. The drive raised over $630,000, surpassing a $250,000 goal.[229] In an interview with the Swedish magazine Icon, he has expressed desire to continue these drives as time goes on, and also credited John and Hank Green as two individuals who gave him the idea of making unique videos for charity.[29] These videos are purchased by game manufacturers and advertisers, for prices ranging up to $50,000.[29]

In December 2016, he hosted Cringemas, a livestream held across two days (9 and 10 December, both at around 6 pm–10 pm GMT), with other Revelmode creators.[107] During the livestream, they helped raise money for RED, a charity committed to helping eliminate HIV/AIDS in Africa.[230] After the first day, the fundraiser raised over $200,000, after YouTube doubled their goal of $100,000, and at the end of the livestream, they had raised a total of over $1.3 million with help from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[231]

On 3 December 2018, Kjellberg announced that he had started a fundraiser on GoFundMe for Child Rights and You (CRY) in order to help Indian children, partially in response to racist comments left on his videos directed toward Indians.[232][233] Kjellberg also hosted a livestream on 4 December, donating all of its proceeds to CRY. He managed to raise over $200,000.[232]

Appearances in other media
Aside from his own YouTube channel, Kjellberg has made appearances in the videos of other YouTube creators and series. In April 2013, he made a cameo in an episode of Epic Rap Battles of History, portraying Mikhail Baryshnikov.[234] In July 2013, Kjellberg starred alongside Anthony Padilla and Ian Hecox of Smosh, as well as Jenna Marbles, as guest judges on the second season of Internet Icon.[235] Kjellberg also appeared in YouTube's annual year-end Rewind series each year from 2013 to 2016.[236][237][238][239]

On 3 June 2014, Sveriges Radio announced that Kjellberg was chosen to host his own episode of the Swedish radio show Sommar i P1.[240] Due to his international popularity, the episode was recorded in both Swedish and English. The Swedish version was broadcast on 9 August 2014 in Sveriges Radio P1, and when the broadcast started the English version was published online.[241] The English version was made available on a dedicated server with extra capacity to avoid crashing the Sveriges Radio server.[242] The link to the Swedish version of the broadcast was shared over 3,500 times, and the link to the English version was shared about 49,000 times.[243]

In December 2014, Kjellberg guest starred in two episodes of the 18th season of South Park, one of his favourite series. The two episodes served as a two-part season finale. The first part, titled "#REHASH" aired on 3 December, while the second part, titled "#HappyHolograms", aired on 10 December.[244][245] In the episodes, he parodied himself and other Let's Play commentators, who added commentary over Call of Duty gameplay in an overly expressive way. In "#REHASH", the character Kyle wonders why his brother and his brother's friends favour watching others comment on events over experiencing events themselves.[244]

In July 2015, Kjellberg was announced as a voice actor in the Vimeo fantasy series, Oscar's Hotel for Fantastical Creatures.[246] In October of the same year, Kjellberg appeared as a guest on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert.[247]

In February 2016, Kjellberg guest starred on Conan, playing Far Cry Primal as part of the show's Clueless Gamer segment.[248]

Other ventures
On 24 September 2015, Kjellberg released his own video game PewDiePie: Legend of the Brofist on iOS and Android. The game was developed by Canadian game developer Outerminds in collaboration with Kjellberg himself.[249][250] On 29 September 2016, he released another game developed by Outerminds, titled PewDiePie's Tuber Simulator.[251] It was released as a free app on iOS and Android devices. The game focuses on getting enough subscribers to dethrone Kjellberg as the king of YouTube. The game reached the number one spot on the App Store within a few days of its release, while also experiencing its servers crashing due to its popularity.[179][251]

Penguin Group released Kjellberg's This Book Loves You, a parody of self-help books, on 20 October 2015.[104] The book includes a collection of aphorisms, jokes, and wisdom, paired with visuals.[252]

On 31 October 2017, former Goat Simulator developer and lead designer Armin Ibrisagic announced his partnership with Kjellberg for his video game Animal Super Squad.[253] Kjellberg helped Ibrisagic with the core concept of the game and provided him with feedback and creative direction.[253]

On 1 March 2018, Kjellberg and Marzia Bisognin announced their unisex clothing brand Tsuki in a YouTube video.[254]

Personal life

Marzia Bisognin (pictured in 2014) and Kjellberg have been in a relationship since 2011
Kjellberg is originally from Sweden,[4] but moved to Italy to live with his girlfriend, Marzia Bisognin.[12] She is an Italian former YouTube personality, formerly known on the website as CutiePieMarzia,[255] but now known as simply Marzia.[256] The two were introduced to each other through a friend of Bisognin's in 2011, and after establishing an online friendship, Kjellberg flew to Italy to meet her.[29] On 27 April 2018, Bisognin announced on Instagram that Kjellberg proposed to her while on a trip to Yokohama, Japan.[257] Kjellberg and Marzia own two pet pugs named Edgar and Maya.[7]

The two shuffled between Sweden and Italy, before settling in Brighton, East Sussex, England.[29][258] Kjellberg explained that the pair moved to the UK in July 2013 for preference to live close to the sea and for better Internet connectivity.[29][259] Kjellberg admits that he enjoys living in Brighton, as he is able to live in general anonymity, adding that one of the reasons he has not moved to Los Angeles is, "Anytime I'm there, people are constantly patting you on the back, telling you how great you are. It fucks with your brain. I started YouTube because I was bored, not to become famous."[21] In June 2016, Kjellberg announced he had been evicted from his recording studio after his landlord confronted him for being too loud.[260]

Kjellberg has stated on his YouTube channel that he is an agnostic atheist.[261]

Filmography
See also: PewDiePie videography
Year(s) Series or Show Role # of episodes Ref(s)
2012 Sveriges Television (Interview) Himself 2 [f]
2013 Epic Rap Battles of History Misha 1 [234]
Internet Icon Himself 1 [235]
2013, 2015 Smosh Babies Baby Pewds 2 [g]
2013–2016 YouTube Rewind Himself 4 [h]
2014 Good Mythical Morning Himself 1 [266]
asdfmovie Lonely Guy / Magician 1 [267]
Skavlan (Interview) Himself 1 [268]
South Park Himself 2 [244]
2015 Oscar's Hotel for Fantastical Creatures Brock 6 [246]
The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (Interview) Himself 1 [247]
Pugatory Edgar 6 [269]
2016 Scare PewDiePie Himself 10 (All) [270]
Conan (Interview) Himself 1 [271]
Today (Interview) Himself 1 [272]
Gameography
Year(s) Game Platform(s) Ref(s)
2015 PewDiePie: Legend of the Brofist iOS, Android, Microsoft Windows, OS X [249]
2016 PewDiePie's Tuber Simulator iOS, Android [251]
2018 Animal Super Squad Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch [253]
Discography
Year Title Notes Ref(s)
2018 "Bitch Lasagna" Co-produced with Party in Backyard; T-Series diss track. Part of the ongoing PewDiePie vs T-Series rivalry [150]
2018 "Rewind Time" Co-produced with Party in Backyard, instrumental for "YouTube Rewind 2018 but it's actually good" [273]
Awards
Year Award Category Result Ref(s)
2013 Starcount Social Star Awards Most Popular Social Show Won [64][65]
Sweden Social Star Award Won [63]
5th Shorty Awards #Gaming Won [274]
2014 Teen Choice Awards Web Star: Gaming Won [275]
4th Streamy Awards Best Gaming Channel, Show, or Series Nominated [276]
Golden Joystick Awards Gaming Personality Won [277]
2015 Teen Choice Awards Choice Web Star: Male Nominated [278]
5th Streamy Awards Best First-Person Channel, Show, or Series Nominated [279]
Best Gaming Channel, Show, or Series Won [279]
Golden Joystick Awards Gaming Personality Won [280]
2016 8th Shorty Awards YouTuber of the Year Nominated [281]
2017 43rd People's Choice Awards Favorite YouTube Star Nominated [282]
See also
List of most-disliked YouTube videos
List of most-liked YouTube videos
List of most-subscribed YouTube channels
List of most-viewed YouTube channels
List of YouTube personalities
Notes
Kjellberg received a second Silver Play Button for the Jack septiceye2 channel in 2016.[1]
Kjellberg received a second Gold Play Button for the Jack septiceye2 channel in 2016.[1]
Kjellberg says his own name in Swedish using the alternative pronunciation [ˈɕɛlːbærj] (with accent 1 rather than accent 2).[6]
For approximately 8 minutes on 22 February 2019, PewDiePie was briefly surpassed by T-Series due to a routine subscriber audit conducted by YouTube.[8]
The term used for an individual in this fan community is "Bro".[10]
Appeared in 2 interviews.[262][263]
Voice acted in "Ian's Lost Love" and "The New Teacher".[264][265]
Kjellberg appeared in every YouTube Rewind short from 2013–2016.[236][237][238][239]
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Further reading
Hjorth, Larissa; Richardson, Ingrid (2014). Gaming in Social, Locative and Mobile Media. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-30142-0. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
Parment, Anders (2014). Marketing to the 90s Generation: Global Data on Society, Consumption, and Identity. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137444295. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
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14
177 71
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added Super Mario Bros. 3 - Overworld 2 Theme

15
216 100
Ranker Video
Son Goku added Street Fighter II - Guile's Theme
16
274 148
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - Theme Song
2003
17
288 161
Ranker Video
Kramer added Super Mario Kart - Intro Theme
1992
18
110 35
Ranker Video
Philipp Amann added Mega Man 2 - Dr. Wily Stage 1
19
267 160
Ranker Video
premesh added Punch-Out!! - Main Theme
1987
20
248 147
Ranker Video
Contra - Jungle Theme
1987

21
236 138
Ranker Video
James Lee added Final Fantasy VI - Ending Theme
1994
** This song is over 20 minutes long.
22
256 154
Ranker Video
DuckTales - Intro Theme
1989

23
254 154
Ranker Video
engbouland added Street Fighter II - Ken's Theme
1992
24
227 134
Ranker Video
James Lee added Chrono Trigger - Frog's Theme
1995
25
186 109
Ranker Video
TJSlipperman added Mega Man 2 - Metal Man
1989
26
16697
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Star Fox - Corneria
1993
27
15893
Ranker Video
Ducktales - Moon Theme

28
15899
Ranker Video
premesh added
Double Dragon - Main Theme
1987
29
188129
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Doom - Main Theme
1993

30
13986
Ranker Video
but chickens double d added
Super Smash Bros. Melee - Main Theme
31
11161
Ranker Video
JeffersonLima added
Donkey Kong Country - Aquatic Ambience
32
12978
Ranker Video
TJSlipperman added
Castlevania II: Simon's Quest - Main Theme
1987
33
11767
Ranker Video
Son Goku added
Street Fighter II - Ryu's Theme
POPULAR OPINION
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34
11669
Ranker Video
Son Goku added
Street Fighter II's Intro
35
13088
Ranker Video
Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest - Main Theme
1995
Stickerbrush Symphony
36
13898
Ranker Video
hbg1968 added
Galaga - Intro Theme
1981
37
6426
Sonic the Hedgehog 2 is listed (or ranked) 37 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Sonic the Hedgehog 2
1992
38
141107
Ranker Video
Clark Benson added
Donkey Kong - Intro Theme
1981
39
164132
Ranker Video
Kramer added
Dr. Mario - Main Theme
1990
40
6229
Ranker Video
TyrantOnion added
Super Mario Bros. 3 - Hammer Bros. Battle Theme
41
7242
Ranker Video
Westleigh Quattrone added
Mega Man 3 Theme
42
128101
Ranker Video
Lon Harris added
Bubble Bobble - Main Theme
1986
43
12599
Ranker Video
Kramer added
Ninja Gaiden - Main Theme
1988
Ninja Gaiden Theme
44
10985
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Secret of Mana - Main Theme
1993
45
11996
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Final Fantasy - Matoya's Cave
1987
46
9372
Ranker Video
but chickens double d added
F-Zero - Main Theme
47
9374
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Spy Hunter - Main Theme
1983

48
10695
Ranker Video
Kirby's Dreamland - Menu Screen/Green Greens
1992
49
10493
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Ghosts'n Goblins - Main Theme
1985
50
9786
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island - Giant Baby Bowser Battle
1995
51
7461
Ranker Video
cmm1285 added
Final Fantasy IV: Within the Giant
1991
52
4833
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added
Mike Tyson Punch Out (NES) - Fight Theme

53
8981
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Mega Man X - Central Highway
1993
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54
4532
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Jerry Icban added
Final Fantasy II - Intro Theme
55
4433
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added
Contra (NES) - Enemy Base
56
194
The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowi is listed (or ranked) 56 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
rasseseta1 added
The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind
2002
57
8180
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Blaster Master - Main Theme
1988
58
3020
Golden Axe is listed (or ranked) 58 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Golden Axe
1989
59
3628
Ranker Video
Philipp Amann added
Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest - Stickerbrush Symphony
60
6261
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Castlevania II: Belmont's Revenge - Main Theme
1991
61
4945
Ranker Video
JeffersonLima added
Donkey Kong Country 2 - Forest Interlude
62
3022
Ranker Video
TyrantOnion added
Mega Man 3 - Shadow Man Theme
1990
63
8491
Ranker Video
hbg1968 added
Ms. Pac-Man - Intro Theme
1982
64
6063
Ranker Video
JasonLorz added
Super Castlevania IV - Rotating Room
1991
65
1911
Street Fighter Ii - Chun Li's is listed (or ranked) 65 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
JabonDix added
Street Fighter Ii - Chun Li's Theme
66
6267
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Altered Beast - Main Theme
1988
67
6369
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Disney's Aladdin - First Stage
1993
68
3332
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added
Tecmo Bowl Nes: Title Theme
69
5967
Ranker Video
engbouland added
Streets of Rage - Intro Theme
1991
70
2219
OutRun is listed (or ranked) 70 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
OutRun
1986
71
2625
Michael Jackson's Moonwalker is listed (or ranked) 71 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Michael Jackson's Moonwalker
1989
72
3538
Ranker Video
Space Invaders Theme
73
5872
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
The Secret of Monkey Island - Main Theme
1990
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74
1718
The Revenge of Shinobi is listed (or ranked) 74 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
The Revenge of Shinobi
1989
75
3746
Ranker Video
but chickens double d added
Crash Bandicoot: the Wrath of Cortex - Wizards and Lizards
76
5875
Ranker Video
Clark Benson added
Pitfall! - Main Theme
1982
77
4152
Ranker Video
ravi2 added
Wizards & Warriors - Main Theme
1987
78
1415
Shining Force is listed (or ranked) 78 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Shining Force
1992
79
1214
R-Type is listed (or ranked) 79 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
R-Type
1987
80
4662
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Metroid II: Return of Samus - Main Theme
1991
81
4257
Ranker Video
hbg1968 added
Road Rash - Intro Theme
1991
82
1316
Kid Chameleon is listed (or ranked) 82 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Kid Chameleon
1992
83
1316
After Burner is listed (or ranked) 83 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
After Burner
1987
84
1114
Castle of Illusion Starring Mi is listed (or ranked) 84 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Castle of Illusion Starring Mickey Mouse
1990
85
1216
Shining Force II is listed (or ranked) 85 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Shining Force II
1993
86
1217
Ranker Video
TyrantOnion added
Faxanadu - Main Theme
1987
87
913
Strider is listed (or ranked) 87 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Strider
1989
88
1218
California Games is listed (or ranked) 88 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
California Games
1987
89
1117
Comix Zone is listed (or ranked) 89 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Comix Zone
1995
90
1321
Alex Kidd in Miracle World is listed (or ranked) 90 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
Armando Ossorio added
Alex Kidd in Miracle World - Main Theme
1986
91
3858
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Myst - Main Theme
1993
92
26

madam2 added
asgore
93
3251
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Lemmings - Main Theme
1991
94
38

madam2 added
asgore
95
816
Rocket Knight Adventures is listed (or ranked) 95 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Rocket Knight Adventures
1993
96
1019
Tiny Toon Adventures: Buster's is listed (or ranked) 96 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Tiny Toon Adventures: Buster's Hidden Treasure
1993
97
715
The Amazing Spider-Man vs. The is listed (or ranked) 97 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
The Amazing Spider-Man vs. The Kingpin
1991
98
715
Ranker Video
_1445176307549 added
Shadow Dancer
99
817
Ranker Video
_1445176307549 added
Disney's Pocahontas
1996
100
3558
Ranker Video
engbouland added
Streets of Rage 2 - Intro Theme
1993
101
2949
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Killer Instinct - Glacius
1994
102
513
Vigilante is listed (or ranked) 102 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Vigilante
1988
103
513
Monster World IV is listed (or ranked) 103 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Monster World IV
1994
BUTTON MASH
Half-Life 2rising to #22 on
The 100+ Best Video Games of All Time, Ranked by Fans
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104
2645
Ranker Video
WitUnderPressure added
Illusion of Gaia
1993
105
615
Phantasy Star IV: The End of t is listed (or ranked) 105 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Phantasy Star IV: The End of the Millennium
1993
106
717
QuackShot is listed (or ranked) 106 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
QuackShot
1991
107
413
Rolling Thunder 2 is listed (or ranked) 107 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Rolling Thunder 2
1990
108
515
Bonanza Bros. is listed (or ranked) 108 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Bonanza Bros.
1990
109
515
Ranker Video
_1445176307549 added
Eternal Champions - Title Theme
1993
110
414
Ranker Video
Christopher Godawski added
Cybernoid
1987
111
2852
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Maniac Mansion - Intro Theme
1987
112
17
Ranker Video
pastorpastor added
Pengo
1982
https://youtu.be/hcKqlr2eBBg

113
619
FIFA: Road to World Cup 98 is listed (or ranked) 113 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
Armando Ossorio added
FIFA: Road to World Cup 98 - Song #2 (Blur)
1997
BEST VIDEO GAMES
The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Timerising to #13 on
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114
2550
Ranker Video
Lon Harris added
Ice Hockey - Intro Theme
1988
115
2347
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Donkey Kong '94
1994
116
416
Ranker Video
_1445176307549 added
Zillion 2: Tri Formation
117
2654
Ranker Video
MornévanderBerg added
Pitfall II: Lost Caverns - Main Theme
1984
118
314
Black Belt is listed (or ranked) 118 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Black Belt
1986
119
314
Landstalker: The Treasures of is listed (or ranked) 119 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
_1445176307549 added
Landstalker: The Treasures of King Nole
1993
120
1842
ToeJam & Earl in Panic on Funk is listed (or ranked) 120 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
Bronxlady1 added
ToeJam & Earl in Panic on Funkotron
1993
121
1030
Ranker Video
tiia-pukero added
Little Nemo the Dream Master - Dream 5
122
1641
Ranker Video
StephenClark added
Space Harrier - Main Theme
1985
123
212
Burai Fighter is listed (or ranked) 123 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
StaB added
Burai Fighter
RETRO
The Legend of Zeldarising to #9 on
The Best Classic Video Games
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124
19
Spanky's Quest is listed (or ranked) 124 on the list The Greatest Classic Video Game Theme Songs Ever
Graciela Ivonne Gamboa Ramírez added
Spanky's Quest
1991
125
213
Ranker Video
_1445176307549 added
Road Avenger - Intro Theme
126
1646
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Tales of Phantasia - Fighting of the Spirit
1995
127
523
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added
John Madden Football '92 Ambulance Montage
128
1648
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Full Throttle - Intro Theme
1995
129
524
Ranker Video
Westleigh Quattrone added
Dave's Theme Maniac Mansion
130
1345
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Gradius III - In the Wind
1989
131
1448
Ranker Video
TJSlipperman added
Solstice: The Quest for the Staff of Demnos
1990
132
215
Ranker Video
_1445176307549 added
Gangster Town - Main Theme
133
1144
Ranker Video
benkadamus added
Super Spike V'Ball
1989
134
424
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added
Nba Live 95 - Title Theme
135
1247
Ranker Video
Hero added
Ape Escape
1999
136
1148
Ranker Video
TJSlipperman added
Journey to Silius - Main Theme
1990
137
943
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Seiken Densetsu 3
1995
138
1149
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
A Boy and His Blob: Trouble on Blobolonia - Main Theme
1989
139
946
Ranker Video
James Lee added
Gradius - Challenger
1985
140
324
Ranker Video
Jerry Icban added
Nba Live 95 - Menu Theme
141
744
Ranker Video
hbg1968 added
Gyruss - Intro Theme
1983
142
850
Ranker Video
TheRealDunnDeal added
Balloon Kid - Opening Theme
1990
143
544
Ranker Video
MornévanderBerg added
City Connection - Intro Theme
1985
144
348
Ranker Video
hbg1968 added
Moon Cresta
1985
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List Rules: Please add only 8 or 16-bit video games with catchy and classic themes and songs.
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Mii Channel themeSEQ. 0100 - THE ALTERNATE SPIDER-MAN “TAS”
WE BEGIN ON A COMIC.
The cover asks WHO IS SPIDER-MAN?
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
Alright, let’s do this one last
time. My name is Peter Parker.
QUICK CUTS of a BLOND PETER PARKER
Pulling down his mask...a name tag that reads “Peter
Parker”...various shots of Spider-Man IN ACTION.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
I was bitten by a radioactive
spider and for ten years I’ve been
the one and only Spider-Man. I’m
pretty sure you know the rest.
UNCLE BEN tells Peter:
UNCLE BEN (V.O.)
With great power comes great
responsibility.
Uncle Ben walks into the beyond.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
I saved a bunch of people, fell in
love, saved the city, and then I
saved the city again and again and
again...
Spiderman saves the city, kisses MJ, saves the city some
more. The shots evoke ICONIC SPIDER-MAN IMAGES, but each one
is subtly different, somehow altered.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
And uh... I did this.
Cut to Spider-Man dancing on the street, exactly like in the
movie Spider-Man 3.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
We don’t really talk about this.
A THREE PANEL SPLIT SCREEN: shots of Spider-Man’s “products”:
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
Look, I’m a comic book, I’m a
cereal, did a Christmas album. I
have an excellent theme song.
(MORE)
And a so-so popsicle. I mean, I’ve
looked worse.
MATCH CUT -- Peter, PINNED to a WALL by a mechanical tentacle
arm. KINGPIN punches Peter. GREEN GOBLIN fights Peter.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
But after everything, I still love
being Spider-Man. I mean, who
wouldn’t?
Peter runs toward a SUPER-COLLIDER, something we’ll see quite
soon. Peter SLAMMED TO THE GROUND.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
So no matter how many hits I take,
I always find a way to come back.
Peter GETS UP... in a shot that we will also remember, RIGHT
BEFORE GOBLIN GRABS HIM.
The collider EXPLOLDING, the force of the blast rippling
through New York.
SPIDER-MAN (V.O.)
Because the only thing standing
between this city and oblivion is
me. There’s only one Spid
MILES
Yeah?!--
JEFFERSON (O.S.)
Are you finished packing for
school?
MILES
Yeah! Just ironing my last shirt!
Reveal his EMPTY BAG. He is NOT PACKED. He’s been AVOIDING
IT.
RIO
¡Vamo chacho!
--He FLIES around the room, tossing VARIOUS ITEMS into the
suitcase, throwing on a BLUE UNIFORM JACKET, the camera
catching other childhood details--
JEFFERSON (O.S.)
C’mon, you a grown man now! Let
show these teachers that. Let’s go!
RIO (O.S.)
--Miles!
INT. MILES’ APARTMENT - LIVING ROOM
BAM! The door flies open. FAST-PACED, Miles enters the living
room, where his parents get ready for the day.
MILES
Where’s my laptop?
RIO
¿Donde le dejaste?
MILES
¡Yo no se!
JEFFERSON
--If you want me to drive you we
gotta go now--
MILES
(edging away)
--No Dad, I’ll walk!--
JEFFERSON (CONT'D)
Personal chauffeur going once-
-
MILES
(continuing)
--It’s ok--
RIO
Ay Maria, este nene me tiene loca!
3.
Miles grabs food. Mom and dad frantically cross behind him.
RIO (CONT’D)
(impatient)
Miles, gotta go!!
MILES
(chewing)
In a minute!
RIO
(sing-song)
Gotta Go-ohh...
MILES
IN A MINUTE--
EXT. STOOP - MORNING
Rio SMOTHERS an embarrassed Miles wi
OLD FRIEND 2
--Miles! ¿Te va bien en la escuela?-
MILES
--Seguro que si--
OLD FRIEND 3
Yo, Miles did you feel that
earthquake last night?
MILES
What are you talking about? I slept
like a baby last night.
OLD FRIEND 5
How’s that new school?
MILES (CONT'D)
--So easy!--
OLD FRIEND 5
We miss you, Miles!
MILES
You miss me? I still live here!
Wait, you miss me?
TIME CUT: Miles RUNS DOWN THE STREET, SLAPS his HOMEMADE
STICKERS on some things, ends by SLAPPING a STOP SIGN, making
a LOUD CLANG--
--but he trips on his shoe laces and falls into the street--
MILES (CONT’D)
¡Contra!
--POLICE LIGHTS FLASH along with the signature BWOOP BWOOP.
MILES (CONT’D)
(knows what’s coming)
Ah c’mon...
SEQ. 0425 - SITTING BACK THERE “SBT”
EXT. BROOKLYN - MORNING
The POLICE CAR moves through the neighborhood. Miles is in
the back seat. 1010 WINS plays.
MILES
Seriously, Dad, walking would have
been fine.
Reveal Jefferson driving. Miles' dad is a COP!
5.
JEFFERSON
You can walk plenty on Saturday
when you peel those stick
Jefferson shakes his head, disapproving, turns off the radio.
JEFFERSON
Spider-Man. I mean this guy swings
in once a day zip zap zop in his
little mask and answers to no one,
right?
MILES
Yeah, Dad.
JEFFERSON
And meanwhile my guys are out
there, lives on the line--
MILES (CONT'D)
Uh huh...
SCHOOL KIDS run alongside the car looking at Miles, who
slinks down. They bang on the window, teasing Miles, “you get
arrested?!”
JEFFERSON
--no masks, we show our
faces. Accountability.
MILES (CONT'D)
--Oh no! Dad, speed up, I
know these kids--
JEFFERSON
--You know, with great ability
comes great accountability--
MILES
That’s not even how the saying
goes, Dad--
JEFFERSON
--I do like his cereal though, I’ll
give him that--
Jeff stops the car. The teens reach Miles’ window.
TEEN BOY
Yo Miles! You get arrested?
MILES
(mortified)
--Oh my gosh. Don’t cops run red
lights?
JEFFERSON
Some do... but not your Dad!
EXT. NEW YORK - MORNING
The car drives up right under the Brooklyn Bridge, to a
school overlooking MANHATTAN, which LOOMS across the water.
7.
EXT. VISIONS ACADEMY - MORNING
The car pulls up. Miles sits, not wanting to go in.
MILES
Why can’t I go back to Brooklyn
Middle?
JEFFERSON
(raises his eyebrows)
Miles, you’ve given it two weeks.
We’re not having this conversation.
MILES
--I just think that this new school
is elitist--
JEFFERSON
--Elitist?--
MILES
--and I would prefer to be at a
normal school among the people.
JEFFERSON
The people? These are your people!
MILES
--I'm only here ‘cause I won that
stupid lottery--
JEFFERSON
No way. You passed the entry test
just like everybody else, ok! You
have an opportunity here, you wanna
blow that, huh? You want to end up
like your Uncle?
MILES
(under his breath)
--What’s wrong with Uncle Aaron?
He’s a good guy--
--Jefferson FLINCHES, angered. Reins it in.
JEFFERSON
...We all make choices in life--
MILES
--It doesn't feel like I have a
choice right now--
JEFFERSON
--YOU DON’T!
8.
Tension fills the car. They sit in silence for a beat.
Miles gets out of the car and opens the front door to get his
bag Jefferson staring through his rearview mirror--
JEFFERSON (CONT’D)
I love you, Miles.
MILES
Yeah, I know, Dad. See you Friday--
--Miles shuts the door and walks away. Jefferson watches,
bummed at the state of the relationship. He lifts his P.A.
JEFFERSON (INTO P.A.)
You gotta say I love you back.
MILES
Dad are you serious?
JEFFERSON (CONT'D)
I wanna hear it.
MILES
You wanna hear me say it--
JEFFERSON (CONT'D)
--I love you, Dad.
MILES
--You’re dropping me off at a
school--
JEFFERSON (CONT'D)
--I love you Dad.
MILES
Look at this place--
JEFFERSON (CONT'D)
--Dad, I love you.
MILES
Dad, I love you.
JEFFERSON (INTO P.A.)
That’s a copy. Tie your shoes
please!
SEQ. 0200 - THE LOTTERY WINNER “TLW”
INT. VISIONS ACADEMY - MORNING
PAN UP from UNTIED SHOES -- Miles clocks them but defiantly
DOES NOT TIE THEM--
--Miles walks through a LOBBY filled with TALLER KIDS in
IDENTICAL BLUE UNIFORMS. A cutting-edge LAB SCHOOL in a
converted industrial building.
STUDENT
I love you, Dad!
9.
In a SEA OF BLUE, Miles awkwardly tries to interact like he
was on his street but everyone's so focused.
MILES
Hey good morning. How you doing?...
Weekend was short, huh?
(he turns to another kid)
Oh my gosh this is embarrassing, we
wore the same jacket--
MILES P.O.V. -- The UNIFORMED KIDS just pass by. Miles is
discouraged.
PASSING STUDENT
Hey--
MILES (CONT'D)
(hopeful)
--Yeah?
PASSING STUDENT
--Your shoe’s untied.
MILES
Yeah, I’m aware. It’s a choice.
And as his SHOULDERS DROOP he turns to walk into--
INT. VISIONS ACADEMY - MONTAGE
--A MATH TEACHER in front of a BAFFLING FORMULA.
MATH TEACHER
--Who can solve this for XY?--
--A LOGIC TEACHER in front of an ELABORATE PROOF.
LOGIC TEACHER
--And that is known as a syllogism.
--IN JUMPCUTS Miles walks back and forth across the hallway.
Each time he is holding more paper and books in his arms,
getting more and more WEIGHED DOWN.
SPANISH TEACHER (V.O.)
--en este clase, se habla
castellano--
LITERATURE TEACHER (V.O.)
--Tonight, read two chapters of
Great Expectations--
SCIENCE TEACHER (V.O.)
--I’m giving you a take-home quiz
on volumetric pressure--
10.
HEALTH TEACHER (V.O.)
--a five page essay with your
conclusions stressed--
VARIOUS TEACHERS (O.S.)
Workers Party/ Take-home Work/
Industrial Revolution/ Incapable/
An enormous change/ Unstoppable--
--The MONTAGE BUILDS, a MULTI-PANELLED FLURRY--
PRELAP: A BELL RINGS
He runs through the EMPTYING HALLWAYS. END MONTAGE.
INT. VISIONS ACADEMY CLASSROOM - DAY
Students sit in a DARKENED CLASSROOM, lit only by a large
screen playing a DOCUMENTARY.
PHYSICIST
--countless other possibilities.
There could be a universe where I
am wearing red. Or wearing leather
pants--
The door BURSTS OPEN -- MILES, out of breath, is silhouetted
in the doorway.
The TEACHER FLIPS THE LIGHTS on. STUDENTS blink in the bright
light and grumble.
MS. CALLEROS
Mr. Morales, moving in the dark.
You’re late again.
MILES
Einstein said time was relative,
right? Maybe I’m not late. Maybe
you guys are early.
Miles’ joke is met with unamused SILENCE. Except for a single
TITTER from a NEW GIRL.
NEW GIRL
Sorry. It was just so quiet.
MS. CALLEROS
Would you like to keep standing
there or do you want to sit down?
Someone HITS THE LIGHTS. In the dark, Miles awkwardly makes
his way to his seat, BANGS into a desk in the dark.
11.
Onscreen is a PHYSICIST, identified as “Director, Alchemax
Laboratories.” She’s the consummate nerd and AMPED about
physics.
PHYSICIST
Our universe is in fact one of many
parallel universes happening at the
exact same time. Thanks to everyone
here at the Fisk Family Foundation
for the Sciences, I will prove they
exist when I build my
supercollider. All I need is 10
billion dollars. Chump change,
right?
ON MILES, he BONKS INTO THE DESK of a NEW GIRL, paying rapt
attention and sits down at the desk beside her.
Miles checks out the girl, who catches him looking. Miles
looks away. Looks back -- she’s still looking.
NEW GIRL
I liked your joke.
MILES
Really?
NEW GIRL
I mean, it wasn’t funny, that’s why
I laughed. But it was smart, so I
liked it.
MILES
(taken aback, then)
I don’t think I’ve seen you before--
--Ms. Calleros SHUSHES Miles, cutting him off.
MS. CALLEROS
Shhhhh!
Miles sits -- checks out the new girl but she’s again
focussed on the documentary. Miles is INTRIGUED.
PHYSICIST
Every choice that we make, would
create countless other
possibilities. A What-if to
infinity.
12.
INT. VISIONS ACADEMY CLASSROOM - LATER
Miles stands in front of Ms. Calleros’ desk as she slides a
zero with a 0/100 written on it.
MILES
A zero? A few more of those and you
probably have to kick me outta here
huh? Maybe I’m just not right for
this school?
MS. CALLEROS
If a person wearing a blind fold
picked the answers on a true or
false quiz at random, do you know
what score they would get?
MILES
Fifty percent?
MS. CALLEROS
That’s right!
MILES
Wait wait!
MS. CALLEROS
The only way to get all the answers
wrong, is to know which answers
were right. You’re trying to quit.
And I’m not going to let you. I’m
assigning you a personal essay. Not
about physics, but about you and
what kind of person you want to be.
INT. DORM ROOM - NIGHT
Miles stares at his STACK OF HOMEWORK. He takes out a legal
pad to start on his Great Expectations paper. He sighs.
Frustrated, Miles looks out the window for a beat.
Miles SMILES -- he has a MISCHIEVOUS IDEA.
SEQ. 0500 - A NIGHT WITH AARON “NWA”
EXT. BROOKLYN - NIGHT
Miles moves down a street, alive with nighttime city energy.
Once again the CAREFREE kid he yearns to be. Moving AWAY from
the Manhattan skyline and turning into--
13.
--AN ALLEY, where he sees a light on in the top apartment.
INT. UNCLE AARON'S APARTMENT - NIGHT
UNCLE AARON is texting on his couch when he receives a
picture text of him, texting, from 1 second ago. Uncle Aaron
looks at his window and sees Miles--
MILES
(laughing)
Uncle Aaroooooon! Hey! Were you
scared?!
Miles PRESSES HIS FACE UP AGAINST THE WINDOW making a funny
face.
TIME CUT -- Aaron washes dishes as Miles SPARS with Aaron’s
PUNCHING BAG not-very-competently:
MILES (CONT’D)
You want that, huh? Unh. Unh.
UNCLE AARON
What’s up with school?
MILES
Going great. Got tons of friends.
UNCLE AARON
You can't tell me it’s all that bad
there... smart girls is where it’s
at. Place must be full of 'em.
Aaron walks over to the punching bag and holds it for Miles.
MILES
No, there’s no one. There’s no one.
Aaron walks over to the microwave to get some popcorn.
UNCLE AARON
...Yo I cannot have a nephew of
mine on the streets with no game.
MILES
I got game!
(fronting)
There was a new girl, actually,
she's kinda into me. You know how
it is.
UNCLE AARON
What's her name?
14.
Miles sits on the couch, and SCRIBBLES in his notebook.
MILES
(stutters, until--)
--You know we... this is... we’re
laying down the ground work right
now.
Uncle Aaron reacts, amused by Miles effort to sound cool.
UNCLE AARON
You know about the shoulder touch?
MILES
Of course I do! But tell me anyway.
UNCLE AARON
Tomorrow find that girl, walk up to
her and be like...
(does shoulder touch)
"Hey".
MILES
(laughing)
You serious Uncle Aaron?
UNCLE AARON
I'm telling you man, it's science.
MILES
So walk up to her and be like...
hey.
UNCLE AARON
No no no no... like hey...
MILES
"Hey."
UNCLE AARON
No. “Heyyy”
MILES
(mocks him)
Heyyyyy.
UNCLE AARON
You sure you’re my nephew, man?
Miles’ phone vibrates.
UNCLE AARON (CONT’D)
Is that her?
15.
Miles has a text from Dad: “Done with that homework?”
MILES
(checking his phone)
I should probably go. Still got a
paper to do tonight.
Aaron sees this text and then casually but deliberately
changes the subject to Miles’ drawings in his notebook.
UNCLE AARON
--Yo, you’ve been holding out on
me. You throw these up yet?
MILES
No, man, you know my da
INT. SUBWAY TUNNEL - NIGHT
Aaron and Miles walk deeper and deeper down the tunnels and
approach an ELECTRIFIED floor-to-ceiling FENCE. RACK TO an
AlCHEMAX PRIVATE PROPERTY SIGN, and other HIGH SECURITY
PARAPHERNALIA. Someone really wants people to stay out.
Aaron expertly CLIMBS A FENCE, drops down on the other side.
Miles climbs the fence. We STAY ON AARON as we hear Miles
struggle. Finally Miles lands next to Aaron.
MILES
Wassup?
Uncle Aaron laughs.
UNCLE AARON
Yeah man I knew we were related.
INT. ABANDONED SUBWAY TUNNEL - NIGHT
Aaron leads Miles into a huge space. Empty walls and
spiderwebs as far as the eye can see.
MILES
Whoa...
(then, for the echoes)
BROOKLYN! Brooklyn! Brooklyn!
The room is full of BEAUTIFUL STREET ART -- it’s a secret
spot.
UNCLE AARON
There’s a lot of history on these
walls.
MILES
This is so fresh.
Aaron gestures to a wall that’s been RECENTLY CLEANED AND
PREPPED...clearly by Aaron.
Aaron smiles, leans down to his BAG and unzips it, revealing
KRYLON SPRAY PAINT CANS. He tosses a can to Miles. Presses
PLAY on a stereo. Miles SMILES--
--and starts painting. Aaron turns over a BENCH.
UNCLE AARON
Now you’re on your own, Miles. (then)
(MORE)
17.
Whoa, slow down a little... that's
better... that’s perfect.
Unbeknownst to them, a faintly glowing SPIDER descends on a
web, towards the ground and towards the cans!
UNCLE AARON (CONT’D)
(coaching him)
The real Miles, comin’ out of
hiding. Now you can cut that line
with another color. That’s it...
MILES
Little help?
CUT TO Miles on Uncle Aaron’s shoulders. For a beat
afterward, they paint TOGETHER.
UNCLE AARON
You want drips? ‘Cause if you do,
that’s cool, but if you don’t you
gotta keep it moving...
MILES
That’s intentional!
Aaron traces Miles’ silhouette on the wall.
UNCLE AARON
Wow.
Miles steps back, admiring his work. A STRIKING PIECE, built
around Miles silouette with nothing painted inside it. A
BLANK. “No Expectations” written above.
MILES
(suddenly embarrassed)
Is it too crazy?
UNCLE AARON
No man. Miles I see exactly what
you’re doing here, man.
Miles smiles. So happy to finally be seen.
UNCLE AARON (CONT’D)
Yeah. You know me and your Dad used
to do this back in the day.
MILES
Stop lying.
UNCLE AARON (CONT'D)
18.
UNCLE AARON
It’s true. Then he took on the cop
thing... and I don’t know. He’s a
good guy, just... you know what I’m
saying...
Aaron’s phone VIBRATES, he READS a message. A shadow across
his face.
UNCLE AARON (CONT’D)
All right, come on man. I gotta
roll.
Aaron walks out of the tunnel leaving Miles alone. Miles
takes one last look at their PAINTING and takes a picture of
it on his phone.
There's the SPIDER, on the back of Miles’ hand. It BITES him!
WE JUMP INTO PSYCHEDELIC 2D ANIMATION, watching the VENOM
make it’s way into MILES’ BLOOD STREAM, BUILDING UNTIL--
--Miles flicks the spider and it falls off his hand.
UNCLE AARON (CONT’D)
Miles, let’s go!
Miles, hiding the bite, runs to join his Uncle.
SEQ. 0700 - PUBERTY “PUB”
INT. DORM ROOM - NIGHT
TIME LAPSE: As the moon rises, Miles shifts positions. It’s a
restless sleep, the spider-bite faintly glows, Miles starts
to sweat...
While Miles tosses and turns, his roomate Ganke works on his
computer, taking a break to read “The True Life Tales of
Spider-Man” comic book.
INT. DORM ROOM - MORNING
Miles gets up and puts his pants on. They are too short.
MILES (V.O.)
That's weird. My pants shrank.
The words "that's weird" are VISUALIZED onscreen. Miles looks
up, SURPRISED by the sound of his own Spider-Man voice-over.
19.
MILES
I think I hit puberty.
Ganke stops typing at this laptop, eyes wide. He quickly
resumes his work as the words “I should have kept that to
myself” appear thought-bubbled next to Miles.
SEQ. 0730 - WHY AM I SO SWEATY? “SWT”
INT. VISIONS ACADEMY - HALLWAY - DAY
Miles walks the halls, awkwardly trying to pull down his
pants that are now suddenly too short for him. As he speaks
HIS THOUGHTS APPEAR IN THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE BEHIND HIM.
MILES (V.O.)
I gotta get new pants. Wait, why is
the voice in my head so loud?
(then)
What--
--His strut is interrupted by a high-pitched WHINE that STOPS
when he bumps into the NEW GIRL FROM PHYSICS CLASS.
NEW GIRL
Oh! Are you okay?
MILES
What?
MILES (V.O.)
Why am I so sweaty???
NEW GIRL
Why are you so sweaty?
MILES
It's a puberty thing. I don't know
why I said that. I’m not going
through puberty. I did. But I’m
done.
(”cool” and deep voice)
I’m a man.
(tries to be suave)
--So you're, like, new here, right?
We got that in common.
NEW GIRL
Yeah, that’s one thing.
MILES
Cool, yeah. I’m Miles.
NEW GIRL
I'm G-Waaaanda.
20.
MILES
Wait, your name is Gwanda?
GWANDA
Yes, it’s African. I'm South
African. No accent though, cause I
was raised here.
Gwanda continues, though her voice FADES AWAY...
MILES (V.O.)
Do the shoulder touch now! Before
she walks away!
In SLOW MOTION, Miles' hand heads toward Gwanda's shoulder as
she watches its slow, deliberate journey.
MILES (V.O.)
Why is this so scary? Am I doing
this in slow motion or does it just
feel that way?
WANDA
...I'm kidding. It's Wanda. No G.
That's crazy.
The hand lands. Beat.
MILES
(”cool” and deep voice)
“Hey.”
WANDA
OK then. I’ll see you around.
MILES
Oh. See you.
Miles is mortified. Wanda turns to leave but is jerked back
by Miles.
MILES (CONT’D)
Sorry... um... oh crap--
WANDA
--Hey! Um, can you let go
please? Ow ow ow ow ow, calm
down, it’s fine--
MILES (CONT'D)
--I can't... let... go...
Miles is STUCK to her. He tries to unstick himself but it
keeps getting worse. Now Wanda's hair is involved.
WANDA
Miles, let go!
21.
MILES
I'm working on it. It's just
puberty!
WANDA
I don’t think you know what puberty
is! Just relax.
MILES
Okay, I have a plan.
WANDA (CONT'D)
Great.
MILES
I’m going to pull REALLY
hard.
WANDA (CONT'D)
That’s a terrible plan.
MILES
1... 2...
WANDA (CONT'D)
--Don’t do this!--
WANDA (CONT’D)
--3!
Wanda finally has enough and FLIPS Miles, in full view of
dozens of students. Miles SCREAMS.
MILES
AHHHHHHHH!!!
Pre-lap: An electric razor BUZZES.
INT. NURSE'S OFFICE - LATER
Miles looks on as his hand is freed from Wanda’s hair.
Miles’ expression tells us her hair is ravaged. And it is.
MILES
Nice to meet you.
She won’t even look at him.
WANDA
Sure. Total pleasure.
INT. VISIONS ACADEMY - HALLWAY - CONTINUOUS
Exiting, Miles balls his hair-covered hands and puts them in
his pockets. He walks the halls, mortified.
MILES (V.O.)
No one saw. It’s ok. No one knows.
No one knows.
(everyone is staring)
Everyone knows. Everyone knows!
22.
The sentence “EVERYONE KNOWS” appears behind him, giant
letters. The period appears last like a CANNONBALL.
MILES
They’re talking about me. They saw
everything. He knows. She knows.
They know.
(distracted by a tall
girl)
Wow. She's super tall. Why is he
smiling? Am I the weird guy now?
What am I doing? How do I stop? Can
they hear my thoughts? Why are all
my thoughts so loud?!
The SCHOOL SECURITY GUARD appears--
SECURITY GUARD
--Hey! I know you snuck out last
night, Morales.
MILES
(V.O./THOUGHT BUBBLE)
Play dumb.
(to the security guard)
Who’s Morales?
(V.O./THOUGHT BUBBLE)
Not that dumb.
SEQ. 0790 - SPIDER-MAN SYMPTOMS “SMS”
--Panicking, Miles TAKES OFF RUNNING.
SECURITY GUARD
--Hey!
Miles rounds a corner and runs down the hall trying.
He finds an open door and runs into:
INT. OFFICE - CONTINUOUS
Miles slams the door behind him.
MILES (V.O.)
You’re okay. You’re okay. You’re
okay. He’ll never find you.
He SPINS to LOOK AROUND THE OFFICE, and sees, to his horror,
a PHOTO OF THE SECURITY GUARD AND HIS BUDDIES.
23.
MILES (V.O.)
No.
EXT. SECURITY OFFICE
The guard reaches the door, starts to bang. We now see the
sign on the door: SECURITY OFFICE.
INSIDE THE OFFICE
Miles is stuck, yanking on the door. His HAND pulls away,
ripping off the DOOR'S VENEER.
He stands, his hands sticking to his shirt and accidentally
YANKING IT OVER HIS EYES.
SECURITY GUARD (O.S.)
What are you doing in my office
Morales?! Morales! Open up!
Unable to see he RUNS DIRECTLY INTO A BOOKSHELF, then sticks
to it, pulling it down IN FRONT OF THE DOOR. He hits the
laptop and Spider-man’s Christmas song (”Spidey Bells”)
starts to play.
MILES (VO/THOUGHT BUBBLE)
Why is this happening?
Outside in the hallway, the security guard notices the kids
reacting to the song playing from his office.
SECURITY GUARD
(sheepish)
It’s my kids playlist.
--Miles TRIPS and ROLLS UP THE WALL -- circling the four
walls like a dervish, he sticks to the ceiling and “break
dances.”
SECURITY GUARD (CONT’D)
Open up!
MILES (V.O./THOUGHT BALLOON)
(exerting himself)
Stop... sticking!
He falls onto a DESK CHAIR and then ROLLS OUT THE WINDOW!
OUTSIDE THE BUILDING
Miles sticks straight out his window sill, sticky feet the
only thing preventing him from falling down.
24.
MILES (V.O./THOUGHT BUBBLE) (CONT’D)
Keep sticking, Miles!
Miles struggles to get inside. He rolls onto an ADJACENT
WINDOW where A FULL CLASSROOM of TRANSFIXED STUDENTS doesn’t
notice the horrified Miles on the window--
TEACHER
....what Hofstadter is
suggesting... is that we... look
underneath...
--Miles rolls AROUND THE BUILDING, rounding a corner --
Suddenly BIRDS fly into him, and somehow become STUCK TO HIS
HANDS as they FLAP WILDLY, PECKING AT HIS EYES--
INSIDE THE GLASS HALLWAY, we find WANDA, watching Miles, a
little perplexed.
WANDA
...OK...
BACK WITH MILES, rounding a corner-- He’s back at his dorm
room!
MILES
My room!
IN HIS ROOM, Miles makes his way through his window to the
FLOOR. He looks up, breath heaving as a SPIDER-MAN COMIC
floats down onto his face. (The True Life Tales of SpiderMan)
Miles lifts the comic -- it rips a bit -- and looks at it.
The two-page spread contains panels IDENTICAL TO WHAT MILES
JUST EXPERIENCED: A Spider bite. Peter Parker pulling on the
door ("Why is this happening?", “Please stop sticking!”),
rolling out the window, and finally lying the floor, exactly
where Miles is.
MILES (CONT’D)
(pure panic)
How could there be two Spider-Men?
There can’t be two Spider-Men.
(V.O.)
Can there?
SEQ. 1100 - I DON’T WANT TO BE A SUPERHERO “IDW”
25.
SPLASH PAGE: THE TWO SPIDER-MEN
On the cover: Miles leans against a glass building, 20
stories up. The REAL SPIDER-MAN is his reflection, but he’s
bigger and cooler looking.
EXT. BROOKLYN STREET - DUSK
Miles races down the street. A phone RINGS.
MILES (V.O.)
Come on Uncle Aaron. Pick up. Pick
up.
UNCLE AARON (PHONE MESSAGE)
--Yo, it’s Aaron. I'm outta town
for a few days. Hit you when I'm
back. Peace.
His thoughts racing in V.O.:
MILES (V.O.)
No nononono. It's not possible--
--The THOUGHT BUBBLE “NO’S” FLY OFF BEHIND HIM--
MILES
It's just puberty, it’s a normal
spider, and I'm a normal kid--
--SCREEEEEEEEECCCHHH!!!! Miles races into the path of an
ONCOMING CAR, but reflexes kick in and he VAULTS over it --
an INSANE SUPER-HEROIC leap that lands him twenty feet away.
AMAZED PASSERSBY CHEER.
Miles continues on, more freaked out than ever.
SEQ. 1150 - BACK THROUGH THE TUNNELS “BTT”
ONSCREEN COMIC BOOK BOXES: “Later...Miles searches for
answers...”
INT. SUBWAY TRAIN - NIGHT
Miles rides the subway.
MILES (V.O.)
I gotta tell someone.
He scrolls to his DAD’s number. He thinks to himself for a
beat, then DECIDES AGAINST IT.
26.
INT. SUBWAY STATION - NIGHT
He exits the subway, turns toward the DARK TUNNEL he and
Uncle Aaron walked into.
MILES
You’re being crazy Miles. You’re
being crazy.
INT. ABANDONED SUBWAY TUNNEL - NIGHT
The MURAL Miles made is still here.
MILES
Find the spider. You’ll see.
The DEAD SPIDER is there. Miles flips it over. It looks WEIRD
and FLUORESCENT.
MILES (CONT’D)
It's a normal spider. It’s like
boring how normal the spider is...
The spider GLITCHES making Miles jump back.
Suddenly, Miles hears a RUMBLE. He stands, STARTLED. The
rumble STOPS. It appears to be coming from a PITCH BLACK
ABANDONED TUNNEL. A surge of SPIDER-SENSE. Overwhelming.
MILES (V.O.) (CONT’D)
Why is this happening to me?
SEQ. 1200 - ASSEMBLY ROOM FIGHT “ARF”
INT. PITCH BLACK TUNNEL
Miles shines his light into darkness. This is SCARY. A LONG,
BLUE TUBE, stamped ALCHEMAX, arcs into the DISTANCE, HUMMING.
Miles’ spider-sense continues to direct him.
Another surge of SPIDER-SENSE hits Miles and we hear
competing thoughts in his head.
MILES (V.O.)
Slow down!/What am I doing? What am
I doing?
Miles picks up the pace, jogs around the corner, where Miles
TURNS, a BIG SURGE OF SPIDER-SENSE and multiple voices are
heard together--
27.
MILES
Look out./I don’t want to be a
hero!/Look out.
MYSTERIOUS VOICE #1
--You’re like me--
MYSTERIOUS VOICE #2
--That’s all it is Miles.--
MYSTERIOUS VOICE #3
--You’re like me--
MYSTERIOUS VOICE #4
--LOOK OUT--
--WHAM!!!!! A SUBWAY CAR flies towards him from the next room
and SMASHES AGAINST THE WALL BESIDE HIM!
MILES
Whoa!
INT. SUPERCOLLIDER STAGING CHAMBER - CONTINUOUS
A massive staging room containing Alchemax EQUIPMENT.
ZOOM IN ON: SPIDER-MAN. In mid-flight. Backwards. He wrecks
against some painful looking equipment.
ON MILES, TERRIFIED. What's happening?!
SPIDER-MAN
Norman, listen to me.
MILES (V.O.)
Spider-Man?!
SPIDER-MAN
I cannot let you open a portal to
another dimension! Brooklyn is not
zoned for that!
PAN to reveal GREEN GOBLIN, a 25' beast with massive wings.
He unfurls a big BIG BLUE TONGUE.
GREEN GOBLIN
It’s not up to me.
MILES (V.O.)
Is that Green Goblin!?
GREEN GOBLIN
Why won’t you quit?!
28.
SPIDER-MAN
I don’t know I guess I like
Brooklyn not being sucked into a
black hole?
MILES
I think I’m gonna go...
SPIDER-MAN
Staten Island maybe, NOT Brooklyn!
As Miles turns to run, A GIANT BEAM CRASHES INTO THE ROOM.
Miles FALLS ON TOP OF IT as it swings back out into the room
where Goblin and Spider-Man are FIGHTING. Miles hangs onto
the beam for dear life.
MILES
No, no!
Miles is tossed around the room as Goblin and Spider-Man
battle.
Green Goblin throws CLUSTER BOMBS as Spider-man swings around
them, and Miles avoids the explosion but now he's EXPOSED.
This is WAY more real in person.
He runs down a MASSIVE HALLWAY, away from the battle. Miles
catches himself before tumbling over the end of the hallway
into a giant room.
SEQ. 1210 - MEET KINGPIN “MKP”
INT. SUPERCOLLIDER ROOM
He is now in an ENORMOUS CHAMBER containing a SUPERCOLLIDER.
MILES
Woah!!
Miles looks around the room, confused.
MILES (CONT’D)
What is this place?--
--Spider-Man and Goblin BURST through doors above him--
--Miles falls STRAIGHT DOWN, but Spidey spots Miles and--
--swings him safely away, high and far from the action. They
are on an OBSERVATION LEDGE overlooking the collider chamber.
A beat as they appraise each other. Then:
29.
SPIDER-MAN
Did you know your shoes are untied?
MILES
Uh huh.
SPIDER-MAN
This is a onesie so I don’t really
have to worry about it.
A beat. Spidey senses something in Miles. Their spider-senses
RESONATE. Like a mind meld.
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
(thrown)
I thought I was the only one.
You’re like me.
MILES
I don’t want to be.
SPIDER-MAN
I don’t think you have a choice,
kiddo.
(gently)
Got a lot going through your head,
I’m sure.
MILES
Yeah...
SPIDER-MAN
You’re gonna be fine. I can help
you. If you stick around, I can
show you the ropes.
MILES
(so relieved)
Yeah.
SPIDER-MAN
I just need to destroy this big
machine real quick before the space
time continuum collapses. Don’t
move. See you in a bit--
--IN AN AMAZING, MIND-BOGGLING MO
He RIPS THE PANEL OUT, reaches in, pulling out COMPLICATED
WIRING. He pulls a STRANGE COMPUTERIZED KEY out of his suit
and tries to plug it INTO A HANGING PORT. Miles watches,
IMPRESSED.
Spider-Man tries to put the key in the port, but it’s the
wrong side, he flips it around, that’s wrong too somehow.
SPIDER-MAN
I always get this wrong.
As he finally gets it-- a SURGE OF SPIDER-SENSE--
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
(looks up)
Oh boy.
--A PURPLE BLUR streaks overhead. TWO PUNCHES from nowhere.
Dazed, Spider-Man looks up and sees a lanky opponent in a
purple MASK and SUIT wearing mechanized GLOVES and BOOTS.
It's THE PROWLER.
As they FLY ACROSS THE ROOM, FIGHTING--
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
Prowler! Man, I was in the middle
of something!
Prowler THROWS HIM HARD TO THE GROUND.
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
(hitting ground)
I am so tired...
Prowler lunges towards Spider-Man but Spider-Man expertly
dodges the claws and spinning rocket boot kicks--
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
Are you mad at me? I feel like
you’re mad at me.
Miles watches from down below, helpless. He SNAPS a picture
on his cell phone.
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
Is that all you got?
--The GREEN GOBLIN appears and pins Spider-Man to the ground.
His giant blue tongue lashes around angrily, hitting SpiderMan with GIANT GOBS OF SPIT.
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
Uhh, so gross.
31.
MILES (V.O./THOUGHT BUBBLES)
I should go up there and help him!
Who am I kidding, I should not do
that.
PRELAP: THE SOUND OF LOUD, DELIBERATE FOOTSTEPS. THE CLICKING
OF A PEN.
INT. CONTROL ROOM
TERRIFIED SCIENTISTS work as SOMETHING HUGE walks through the
room from behind them.
REVEAL KINGPIN, an elaborately-tailored HULK OF A MAN. He
walks through the control room towards the windows that face
out over the collider room.
KINGPIN
(creepily singing spiderman theme)
Dooby do, dooby do. Watch out, here
comes the spider-man!
(then, over a P.A.)
You like my new toy? It cost me a
fortune. But hey, you can’t take it
with you, right? You came all this
way. Watch the test. It’s a hell of
a freakin’ light show, you’re gonna
love this.
SPIDER-MAN
(panicking now)
No! No! Don’t do this! Stop! You
don’t know what it can do, it’ll
kill us all!
The collider ROARS ON, lights MOVING UP THE WALLS toward the
top, as it CRESCENDOES WITH-- CLUNK! A TINY ATMOSPHERIC METER
in a BOX lowers down, blinking, with a TINNY WHIR...
Spider-Man confused as--the SENSOR LOCKS INTO PLACE.
--BLAM! The collider behind Spidey ACTIVATES, firing PARTICLE
BEAMS at the BOX, which FREAKS OUT, it’s readings ON HAYWIRE.
IT’S CRAZY LOOKING.
Kingpin watches, a huge smile. A DREAM COMING TRUE. The
scientists are growing EXCITED--
SCIENTIST 3 (O.S.)
The portal is opening.
FEMALE PHYSICIST VOICE (O.S.)
I see multiple dimensions
opening!
32.
KINGPIN
Good.
FEMALE PHYSICIST VOICE (O.S.)
That was 3... 4... and 5 separate
dimensions--
SCIENTIST 4 (O.S.)
It’s unstable... we should stop--
EXT. BROOKLYN - SAME TIME
A Brooklynite looks up from a quivering latte at FOAM
PARTY...
A minor EARTHQUAKE shakes Brooklyn. But this is no ordinary
earthquake. Weird colors, weird blurring. 25 TRAFFIC LIGHTS
vibrating in the same space. 25 DIFFERENT-LOOKING CHRYSLER
BUILDINGS vibrating in the same space. As we’ll later learn
this is a “dimensional quake.” Very dangerous. But it looks
COOL.
INSIDE THE COLLIDER ROOM
Spider-Man struggles as Goblin continues to hold him onto the
ground. The ceiling tiles begin to shake, falling onto Goblin-
-
SPIDER-MAN
Norm, what’s your take on head
trauma?
(it hits Goblin)
--I tried to warn you, pal.
Spidey jumps towards the collider. BUT--
Goblin rises, flies, then GRABS Spider-Man and SHOVES HIM
into the beam/tiny portal. The beam now OUT OF CONTROL.
KINGPIN
Goblin, no! Get him out of there!
Uh Oh. Goblin pushes Spidey's head INTO THE BEAM.
PETER'S POV -- PSYCHEDELIC LIGHTS and UNDULATING THREADS. We
don’t know it yet but we are seeing a portal to the
multiverse. SPIDEY starts to GLITCH STRANGELY--
--Spidey regains control, PULLING GOBLIN into the beam then A
HUGE ENERGY PULSE BURSTS OUT FROM THE COLLIDER, knocking
everyone back!
33.
OUTSIDE, the PULSE WHOOSHES THROUGH THE CITY, KNOCKING THE
LIGHTS OUT TEMPORARILY--
SEQ. 1220 - DEATH OF SPIDER-MAN “DOS”
INT. SUPERCOLLIDER STAGING AREA - INTERCUT
The PULSE wrecks the chamber. Miles has FALLEN THROUGH A HOLE
IN THE FLOOR, smoke billowing everywhere.
Miles scrambles by the remains of Green Goblin, crushed by
some heavy machinery: DEAD.
--Miles reaches A very injured SPIDER-MAN.
MILES
Hey! Are you okay???
SPIDER-MAN
(no, but plays it off)
I’m fine, I’m fine. Just resting.
MILES
Can’t you get up?
SPIDER-MAN
(wry laugh)
Yeah, yeah I always get up...
(coughing)
The coughing’s probably not a good
sign.
NOISES FROM ABOVE, shadows. Kingpin’s thugs have discovered
the hole.
SPIDER-MAN (CONT’D)
Listen, we gotta team up here, we
don’t have that much time...
--Spider-Man hands the SHUTDOWN KEY to Miles--
SPIDER-MAN
Page semi-protected
Internet troll
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Trolling" redirects here. For other uses, see Troll (disambiguation).
"Do not feed the troll" redirects here. For the Wikipedia advice, see Wikipedia:Deny recognition.
It has been suggested that Shitposting be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2017.

In Internet slang, a troll (/ˈtroʊl/, /ˈtrɒl/) is a person who sows discord on the Internet by starting arguments or upsetting people, by posting inflammatory,[1] extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the intent of provoking readers into an emotional response[2] or of otherwise disrupting normal, on-topic discussion,[3] often for the troll's amusement.

This sense of both the noun and the verb "troll" is associated with Internet discourse, but also has been used more widely. Media attention in recent years has equated trolling with online harassment. For example, the mass media have used "troll" to mean "a person who defaces Internet tribute sites with the aim of causing grief to families."[4][5] In addition, depictions of trolling have been included in popular fictional works, such as the HBO television program The Newsroom, in which a main character encounters harassing persons online and tries to infiltrate their circles by posting negative sexual comments.

Contents

1 Usage
2 Origin and etymology
2.1 In other languages
3 Trolling, identity, and anonymity
4 Corporate, political, and special interest sponsored trolls
5 Psychological characteristics
6 Concern troll
7 Troll sites
8 Media coverage and controversy
8.1 Australia
8.2 United Kingdom
8.3 United States
8.4 India
9 Examples
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
13.1 Trolling advocacy and safety
13.2 Background and definitions
13.3 Academic and debate

Usage
The advice to ignore rather than engage with a troll is sometimes phrased as "Please do not feed the trolls."

Application of the term troll is subjective. Some readers may characterize a post as trolling, while others may regard the same post as a legitimate contribution to the discussion, even if controversial. Like any pejorative term, it can be used as an ad hominem attack, suggesting a negative motivation.[6]

As noted in an OS News article titled "Why People Troll and How to Stop Them" (25 January 2012), "The traditional definition of trolling includes intent. That is, trolls purposely disrupt forums. This definition is too narrow. Whether someone intends to disrupt a thread or not, the results are the same if they do."[7][8] Others have addressed the same issue, e.g., Claire Hardaker, in her Ph.D. thesis[8] "Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: From user discussions to academic definitions."[9] Popular recognition of the existence (and prevalence) of non-deliberate, "accidental trolls", has been documented widely, in sources as diverse as Nicole Sullivan's keynote speech at the 2012 Fluent Conference, titled "Don't Feed the Trolls"[10] Gizmodo,[11] online opinions on the subject written by Silicon Valley executives[12] and comics.[13]

Regardless of the circumstances, controversial posts may attract a particularly strong response from those unfamiliar with the robust dialogue found in some online, rather than physical, communities. Experienced participants in online forums know that the most effective way to discourage a troll is usually to ignore it,[citation needed] because responding tends to encourage trolls to continue disruptive posts – hence the often-seen warning: "Please do not feed the trolls".

The "trollface" is an image occasionally used to indicate trolling in Internet culture.[14][15][16]

At times, the word can be abused to refer to anyone with controversial opinions they disagree with.[17] Such usages goes against the ordinary meaning of troll in multiple ways. Most importantly, trolls don't actually believe the controversial views they claim. Farhad Manjoo criticises this view, noting that if the person really is trolling, they are a lot more intelligent than their critics would believe.[17]
Origin and etymology

There are competing theories of where and when "troll" was first used in Internet slang, with numerous unattested accounts of BBS and UseNet origins in the early 1980s or before.

The English noun "troll" in the standard sense of ugly dwarf or giant dates to 1610 and comes from the Old Norse word "troll" meaning giant or demon.[18] The word evokes the trolls of Scandinavian folklore and children's tales: antisocial, quarrelsome and slow-witted creatures which make life difficult for travellers.[19][20]

In modern English usage, "trolling" may describe the fishing technique of slowly dragging a lure or baited hook from a moving boat[21] whereas trawling describes the generally commercial act of dragging a fishing net. Early non-Internet slang use of "trolling" can be found in the military: by 1972 the term "trolling for MiGs" was documented in use by US Navy pilots in Vietnam. It referred to use of "...decoys, with the mission of drawing...fire away..."[22]

The contemporary use of the term is alleged to have appeared on the Internet in the late 1980s,[23][24] but the earliest known attestation according to the Oxford English Dictionary is in 1992.[25][26][27]

The context of the quote cited in the Oxford English Dictionary[26] sets the origin in Usenet in the early 1990s as in the phrase "trolling for newbies", as used in alt.folklore.urban (AFU).[28][29] Commonly, what is meant is a relatively gentle inside joke by veteran users, presenting questions or topics that had been so overdone that only a new user would respond to them earnestly. For example, a veteran of the group might make a post on the common misconception that glass flows over time. Long-time readers would both recognize the poster's name and know that the topic had been discussed a lot, but new subscribers to the group would not realize, and would thus respond. These types of trolls served as a practice to identify group insiders. This definition of trolling, considerably narrower than the modern understanding of the term, was considered a positive contribution.[28][30] One of the most notorious AFU trollers, David Mikkelson,[28] went on to create the urban folklore website Snopes.com.

By the late 1990s, alt.folklore.urban had such heavy traffic and participation that trolling of this sort was frowned upon. Others expanded the term to include the practice of playing a seriously misinformed or deluded user, even in newsgroups where one was not a regular; these were often attempts at humor rather than provocation. The noun troll usually referred to an act of trolling – or to the resulting discussion – rather than to the author, though some posts punned on the dual meaning of troll.[31]
In other languages
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In Chinese, trolling is referred to as bái mù (Chinese: 白目; literally: "white eye"), which can be straightforwardly explained as "eyes without pupils", in the sense that whilst the pupil of the eye is used for vision, the white section of the eye cannot see, and trolling involves blindly talking nonsense over the internet, having total disregard to sensitivities or being oblivious to the situation at hand, akin to having eyes without pupils. An alternative term is bái làn (Chinese: 白爛; literally: "white rot"), which describes a post completely nonsensical and full of folly made to upset others, and derives from a Taiwanese slang term for the male genitalia, where genitalia that is pale white in colour represents that someone is young, and thus foolish. Both terms originate from Taiwan, and are also used in Hong Kong and mainland China. Another term, xiǎo bái (Chinese: 小白; literally: "little white") is a derogatory term that refers to both bái mù and bái làn that is used on anonymous posting internet forums. Another common term for a troll used in mainland China is pēn zi (Chinese: 噴子; literally: "sprayer, spurter").

In Japanese, tsuri (釣り?) means "fishing" and refers to intentionally misleading posts whose only purpose is to get the readers to react, i.e. get trolled. arashi (荒らし?) means "laying waste" and can also be used to refer to simple spamming.

In Icelandic, þurs (a thurs) or tröll (a troll) may refer to trolls, the verbs þursa (to troll) or þursast (to be trolling, to troll about) may be used.

In Korean, nak-si (낚시) means "fishing", and is used to refer to Internet trolling attempts, as well as purposefully misleading post titles. A person who recognizes the troll after having responded (or, in case of a post title nak-si, having read the actual post) would often refer to himself as a caught fish.[citation needed]

In Portuguese, more commonly in its Brazilian variant, troll (produced [ˈtɾɔw] in most of Brazil as spelling pronunciation) is the usual term to denote internet trolls (examples of common derivate terms are trollismo or trollagem, "trolling", and the verb trollar, "to troll", which entered popular use), but an older expression, used by those which want to avoid anglicisms or slangs, is complexo do pombo enxadrista to denote trolling behavior, and pombos enxadristas (literally, "chessplayer pigeons") or simply pombos are the terms used to name the trolls. The terms are explained by an adage or popular saying: "Arguing with fulano (i.e., John Doe) is the same as playing chess with a pigeon: the pigeon defecates on the table, drop the pieces and simply fly, claiming victory."

In Thai, the term krian (เกรียน) has been adopted to address Internet trolls. According to the Royal Institute of Thailand, the term, which literally refers to a closely cropped hairstyle worn by schoolboys in Thailand, is from the behaviour of these schoolboys who usually gather to play online games and, during which, make annoying, disruptive, impolite, or unreasonable expressions.[32] The term top krian (ตบเกรียน; "slap a cropped head") refers to the act of posting intellectual replies to refute and cause the messages of Internet trolls to be perceived as unintelligent.[citation needed]

In the Sinhala language, this is called ala kireema (අල කිරීම), which means "Turning it into Potatoes (Sabotage)". Sometimes it is used as ala vagaa kireema (අල වගා කිරීම) – "Planting Potatoes". People/Profiles who does trolling often are called "Potato Planters" – ala vagaakaruvan (අල වගාකරුවන්). This seems to be originated from university slang ala væda (අල වැඩ) which means "Potato business" is used for breaking the laws/codes of the university.[citation needed]
Trolling, identity, and anonymity

Early incidents of trolling[33] were considered to be the same as flaming, but this has changed with modern usage by the news media to refer to the creation of any content that targets another person. The Internet dictionary NetLingo suggests there are four grades of trolling: playtime trolling, tactical trolling, strategic trolling, and domination trolling.[34] The relationship between trolling and flaming was observed in open-access forums in California, on a series of modem-linked computers. CommuniTree was begun in 1978 but was closed in 1982 when accessed by high school teenagers, becoming a ground for trashing and abuse.[35] Some psychologists have suggested that flaming would be caused by deindividuation or decreased self-evaluation: the anonymity of online postings would lead to disinhibition amongst individuals[36] Others have suggested that although flaming and trolling is often unpleasant, it may be a form of normative behavior that expresses the social identity of a certain user group[37][38] According to Tom Postmes, a professor of social and organisational psychology at the universities of Exeter, England, and Groningen, The Netherlands, and the author of Individuality and the Group, who has studied online behavior for 20 years, "Trolls aspire to violence, to the level of trouble they can cause in an environment. They want it to kick off. They want to promote antipathetic emotions of disgust and outrage, which morbidly gives them a sense of pleasure."[35]

The practice of trolling has been documented by a number of academics as early as the 1990s. This included Steven Johnson in 1997 in the book, Interface Culture, and Judith Donath in 1999. Donath's paper outlines the ambiguity of identity in a disembodied "virtual community" such as Usenet:

In the physical world there is an inherent unity to the self, for the body provides a compelling and convenient definition of identity. The norm is: one body, one identity ... The virtual world is different. It is composed of information rather than matter.[39]

Donath provides a concise overview of identity deception games which trade on the confusion between physical and epistemic community:

Trolling is a game about identity deception, albeit one that is played without the consent of most of the players. The troll attempts to pass as a legitimate participant, sharing the group's common interests and concerns; the newsgroups members, if they are cognizant of trolls and other identity deceptions, attempt to both distinguish real from trolling postings, and upon judging a poster a troll, make the offending poster leave the group. Their success at the former depends on how well they – and the troll – understand identity cues; their success at the latter depends on whether the troll's enjoyment is sufficiently diminished or outweighed by the costs imposed by the group.

Trolls can be costly in several ways. A troll can disrupt the discussion on a newsgroup, disseminate bad advice, and damage the feeling of trust in the newsgroup community. Furthermore, in a group that has become sensitized to trolling – where the rate of deception is high – many honestly naïve questions may be quickly rejected as trollings. This can be quite off-putting to the new user who upon venturing a first posting is immediately bombarded with angry accusations. Even if the accusation is unfounded, being branded a troll is quite damaging to one's online reputation.[39]

Susan Herring and colleagues in "Searching for Safety Online: Managing 'Trolling' in a Feminist Forum" point out the difficulty inherent in monitoring trolling and maintaining freedom of speech in online communities: "harassment often arises in spaces known for their freedom, lack of censure, and experimental nature".[40] Free speech may lead to tolerance of trolling behavior, complicating the members' efforts to maintain an open, yet supportive discussion area, especially for sensitive topics such as race, gender, and sexuality.[40]

In an effort to reduce uncivil behavior by increasing accountability, many web sites (e.g. Reuters, Facebook, and Gizmodo) now require commenters to register their names and e-mail addresses.[41]
Corporate, political, and special interest sponsored trolls
See also: troll army and Megaphone desktop tool

Investigative journalist Sharyl Attkisson is one of several in the media who has reported on the increasing trend for organizations to utilize trolls to manipulate public opinion as part and parcel of an Astroturfing initiative. Teams of sponsored trolls, sometimes referred to as sockpuppet armies,[42][43] swarm a site to overwhelm any honest discourse and denigrate any who disagree with them.[44] A 2012 Pew Center on the States presentation on Effective Messaging included two examples of social media posts by a recently launched "rapid response team" dedicated to promoting fluoridation of community water supplies. That same presentation also emphasized changing the topic of conversation as a winning strategy.[45]

A 2016 study by Harvard political scientist Gary King reported that the Chinese government's 50 Cent Party creates 440 million pro-government social media posts per year.[46][47] The report said that government employees were paid to create pro-government posts around the time of national holidays to avoid mass political protests. The Chinese Government ran an editorial in the state-funded Global Times defending censorship and 50c party trolls.[48]

A 2016 study for the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence (NATO StratCom COE) on hybrid warfare notes that the Russian military intervention in Ukraine "demonstrated how fake identities and accounts were used to disseminate narratives through social media, blogs, and web commentaries in order to manipulate, harass, or deceive opponents."[49]
Psychological characteristics

Researcher Ben Radford wrote about the phenomenon of clowns in history and modern day in his book Bad Clowns and found that bad clowns have evolved into Internet trolls. They do not dress up as traditional clowns but, for their own amusement, they tease and exploit "human foibles" in order to speak the "truth" and gain a reaction. Like clowns in make-up, Internet trolls hide behind "anonymous accounts and fake usernames." In their eyes they are the trickster and are performing for a nameless audience via the Internet.[50]
Concern troll
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A concern troll is a false flag pseudonym created by a user whose actual point of view is opposed to the one that the troll claims to hold. The concern troll posts in Web forums devoted to its declared point of view and attempts to sway the group's actions or opinions while claiming to share their goals, but with professed "concerns". The goal is to sow fear, uncertainty and doubt within the group.[51] This is a particular case of sockpuppeting.

An example of this occurred in 2006 when Tad Furtado, a staffer for then-Congressman Charles Bass (R-NH), was caught posing as a "concerned" supporter of Bass' opponent, Democrat Paul Hodes, on several liberal New Hampshire blogs, using the pseudonyms "IndieNH" or "IndyNH". "IndyNH" expressed concern that Democrats might just be wasting their time or money on Hodes, because Bass was unbeatable.[52][53] Hodes eventually won the election.

Although the term "concern troll" originated in discussions of online behavior, it now sees increasing use to describe similar behaviors that take place offline. For example, James Wolcott of Vanity Fair accused a conservative New York Daily News columnist of "concern troll" behavior in his efforts to downplay the Mark Foley scandal. Wolcott links what he calls concern trolls to what Saul Alinsky calls "Do-Nothings", giving a long quote from Alinsky on the Do-Nothings' method and effects:

These Do-Nothings profess a commitment to social change for ideals of justice, equality, and opportunity, and then abstain from and discourage all effective action for change. They are known by their brand, 'I agree with your ends but not your means'.[54]

The Hill published an op-ed piece by Markos Moulitsas of the liberal blog Daily Kos titled "Dems: Ignore 'Concern Trolls'". The concern trolls in question were not Internet participants but rather Republicans offering public advice and warnings to the Democrats. The author defines "concern trolling" as "offering a poisoned apple in the form of advice to political opponents that, if taken, would harm the recipient".[55]
Troll sites
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While many webmasters and forum administrators consider trolls a scourge on their sites[according to whom?], some websites welcome them. For example, a New York Times article discussed troll activity at 4chan and at Encyclopedia Dramatica, which it described as "an online compendium of troll humor and troll lore".[23] 4chan's /b/ board is recognized as "one of the Internet's most infamous and active trolling hotspots."[56] This site and others are often used as a base to troll against sites that their members can not normally post on. These trolls feed off the reactions of their victims because "their agenda is to take delight in causing trouble".[57]
Media coverage and controversy
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Mainstream media outlets have focused their attention on the willingness of some Internet users to go to extreme lengths to participate in organized psychological harassment.
Australia

In February 2010, the Australian government became involved after users defaced the Facebook tribute pages of murdered children Trinity Bates and Elliott Fletcher. Australian communications minister Stephen Conroy decried the attacks, committed mainly by 4chan users, as evidence of the need for greater Internet regulation, stating, "This argument that the Internet is some mystical creation that no laws should apply to, that is a recipe for anarchy and the wild west."[58] Facebook responded by strongly urging administrators to be aware of ways to ban users and remove inappropriate content from Facebook pages.[59] In 2012, the Daily Telegraph started a campaign to take action against "Twitter trolls", who abuse and threaten users. Several high-profile Australians including Charlotte Dawson, Robbie Farah, Laura Dundovic, and Ray Hadley have been victims of this phenomenon.[60][61][62]
United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, contributions made to the Internet are covered by the Malicious Communications Act 1988 as well as Section 127 of the Communications Act 2003, under which jail sentences were, until 2015, limited to a maximum of six months.[63] In October 2014, the UK's Justice Secretary, Chris Grayling, said that "internet trolls" would face up to two years in jail, under measures in the Criminal Justice and Courts Bill that extend the maximum sentence and time limits for bringing prosecutions.[63][64] The House of Lords Select Committee on Communications had earlier recommended against creating a specific offence of trolling. Sending messages which are "grossly offensive or of an indecent, obscene or menacing character" is an offence whether they are received by the intended recipient or not. Several people have been imprisoned in the UK for online harassment.[65]

Trolls of the testimonial page of Georgia Varley faced no prosecution due to misunderstandings of the legal system in the wake of the term trolling being popularized.[66] In October 2012, a twenty-year-old man was jailed for twelve weeks for posting offensive jokes to a support group for friends and family of April Jones.[67]
United States

On 31 March 2010, the Today Show ran a segment detailing the deaths of three separate adolescent girls and trolls' subsequent reactions to their deaths. Shortly after the suicide of high school student Alexis Pilkington, anonymous posters began performing organized psychological harassment across various message boards, referring to Pilkington as a "suicidal slut", and posting graphic images on her Facebook memorial page. The segment also included an exposé of a 2006 accident, in which an eighteen-year-old fatally crashed her father's car into a highway pylon; trolls emailed her grieving family the leaked pictures of her mutilated corpse.[5]

In 2007, the media was fooled by trollers into believing that students were consuming a drug called Jenkem, purportedly made of human waste. A user named Pickwick on TOTSE posted pictures implying that he was inhaling this drug. Major news corporations such as Fox News Channel reported the story and urged parents to warn their children about this drug. Pickwick's pictures of Jenkem were fake and the pictures did not actually feature human waste.[68]

In August 2012, the subject of trolling was featured on the HBO television series The Newsroom. The character of Neal Sampat encounters harassing individuals online, particularly looking at 4chan, and he ends up choosing to post negative comments himself on an economics related forum. The attempt by the character to infiltrate trolls' inner circles attracted debate from media reviewers critiquing the series.[69][70]

The publication of the 2015 non-fiction book The Dark Net: Inside the Digital Underworld by Jamie Bartlett, a journalist and a representative of the British think tank Demos, attracted some attention for its depiction of misunderstood sections of the internet, describing interactions on encrypted sites such as those accessible with the software Tor. Detailing trolling-related groups and the harassment created by them, Bartlett advocated for greater awareness of them and monitoring of their activities. Professor Matthew Wisnioski wrote for The Washington Post that a "league of trolls, anarchists, perverts and drug dealers is at work building a digital world beyond the Silicon Valley offices where our era’s best and brightest have designed a Facebook-friendly" surface and agreed with Bartlett that the activities of trolls go back decades to the Usenet 'flame wars' of the 1990s and even earlier.[71]
India

Newslaundry covered the phenomena of "Twitter Trolling" in its Criticles.[72] It has also been characterising Twitter trolls in its weekly podcasts.[73]
Examples

As reported on 8 April 1999, investors became victims of trolling via an online financial discussion regarding PairGain, a telephone equipment company based in California. Trolls operating in the stock's Yahoo Finance chat room posted a fabricated Bloomberg News article stating that an Israeli telecom company could potentially acquire PairGain. As a result, PairGain's stock jumped by 31%. However, the stock promptly crashed after the reports were identified as false.[74]

So-called Gold Membership trolling originated in 2007 on 4chan boards, when users posted fake images claiming to offer upgraded 4chan account privileges; without a "Gold" account, one could not view certain content. This turned out to be a hoax designed to fool board members, especially newcomers. It was copied and became an Internet meme. In some cases, this type of troll has been used as a scam, most notably on Facebook, where fake Facebook Gold Account upgrade ads have proliferated in order to link users to dubious websites and other content.[75]

The case of Zeran v. America Online, Inc. resulted primarily from trolling. Six days after the Oklahoma City bombing, anonymous users posted advertisements for shirts celebrating the bombing on AOL message boards, claiming that the shirts could be obtained by contacting Mr. Kenneth Zeran. The posts listed Zeran's address and home phone number. Zeran was subsequently harassed.[74]

Anti-Scientology protests by Anonymous, commonly known as Project Chanology, are sometimes labeled as "trolling" by media such as Wired,[76] and the participants sometimes explicitly self-identify as "trolls".

Neo-Nazi website The Daily Stormer orchestrates what it calls a "Troll Army", and has encouraged trolling of Jewish MP Luciana Berger and Muslim activist Mariam Veiszadeh.[77]
See also

iconInternet portal

Anti-social behaviour
Astroturfing
Cyber-bullying
Flame war
Fake news website
Griefer
Heckler
Hit-and-run posting
Patent troll
Patriotic Nigras
Poe's law
Sea lioning
Social gadfly
Sockpuppet (Internet)

References

"Definition of troll". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
"Definition of: trolling". PCMAG.COM. Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc. 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
Indiana University: University Information Technology Services (5 May 2008). "What is a troll?". Indiana University Knowledge Base. The Trustees of Indiana University. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
"Police charge alleged creator of Facebook hate page aimed at murder victim". Australia: The Courier Mail. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
"Trolling: The Today Show Explores the Dark Side of the Internet", 31 March 2010. Retrieved on 4 April 2010.
Florez, Jose (20 October 2016). "The Online Guide To Internet Trolls For Psychologists". Mental Daily.
Fosdick, Howard (25 January 2012). "Why People Troll and How to Stop Them". OS News.
Tastam90, Message # 369489 (9 June 2013). "Terminology: Trolling in CNet?!?". CollegeNET.
Hardaker, C. (2010). "Trolling in asynchronous computer-mediated communication: From user discussions to academic definitions". Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture. 6 (2). doi:10.1515/JPLR.2010.011.
"De-Trolling the Web: Don't Post in Anger". 4 June 2012.
Mat Honan (6 Jan 2012). "Why We Troll".
Mike Elgan (6 Jan 2012). "What is a troll?". Google+.
"Accidental troll mom rage". RageComics. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
Trollface hack strikes PlayStation 3? PSU community member reports XMB weirdness.
"Pasta" y "MasterDog" ya son parte de la jerga universitaria.
"Forever Alone" y "Ay sí, ay sí", entre los más populares.
Manjoo, Farhad (5 December 2012). "Stop Calling Me a Troll". Slate. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
Harper, Douglas. "troll". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
ln. "Trollmother". Retrieved 22 October 2014.
"Trolls. Who are they?". unknown. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
"troll". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
John Saar (4 February 1972). "Carrier War". Life.
Schwartz, Mattathias (3 August 2008). "The Trolls Among Us". The New York Times. pp. MM24. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
Miller, Mark S. (8 February 1990). "FOADTAD". Newsgroup: alt.flame. Usenet: 131460@sun.Eng.Sun.COM. Retrieved 2 June 2009. "Just go die in your sleep you mindless flatulent troll."
troll, n.1. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2006.
Chan, Terry (8 October 1992). "Post the FAQ". Newsgroup: alt.folklore.urban. Usenet: 26717@dog.ee.lbl.gov. Retrieved 21 July 2016. "Maybe after I post it, we could go trolling some more and see what happens."
Esan, David (2 October 1992). "Mixed up translations". Newsgroup: alt.folklore.urban. Usenet: 4322@moscom.com. Retrieved 21 July 2016. "It just amazes me that when someone goes newbie trolling how many people he catches."
Tepper, Michele (1997). "Usenet Communities and the Cultural Politics of Information". In Porter, David. Internet culture. New York, New York, United States: Routledge Inc. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-91683-7. Retrieved 24 March 2009. "... the two most notorious trollers in AFU, Ted Frank and Snopes, are also two of the most consistent posters of serious research."
Cromar, Scott (9 October 1992). "Trolling for Newbies". Newsgroup: alt.folklore.urban. Usenet: Oct.9.10.26.26.1992.22869@math.rutgers.edu. Retrieved 16 July 2016. "Some people call this game trolling for newbies"
Zotti, Ed; et al. (14 April 2000). "What is a troll?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 24 March 2009. "To be fair, not all trolls are slimeballs. On some message boards, veteran posters with a mischievous bent occasionally go 'newbie trolling.'"
Wilbur, Tom (8 February 1993). "AFU REALLY REALLY WAY SOUTH". Newsgroup: alt.folklore.urban. Usenet: 1993Feb8.010006.1589@Csli.Stanford.EDU. Retrieved 21 July 2016. "Tom "nice troll, by the way" Wilbur"
Royal Institute of Thailand (2009). Photchananukrom Kham Mai Lem Song Chabap Ratchabandittayasathan พจนานุกรมคำใหม่ เล่ม ๒ ฉบับราชบัณฑิตยสถาน [Royal Institute Dictionary of New Words, Volume 2] (in Thai). Bangkok: Royal Institute of Thailand. p. 11. ISBN 9786167073040.
Stevan Harnad (1987/2011) "Sky-Writing, Or, When Man First Met Troll" The Atlantic
"Troll (aka Trolling)". Netlingo.com. 1994–2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011. "In general, to "troll" means to allure, to fish, to entice or to bait. Internet trolls are people who fish for other people's confidence and, once found, exploit it. Trolls vary in nature."
Adams, Tim (24 July 2011). "How the internet created an age of rage". London: The Guardian (The Observer).
S. Kiesler; J. Siegel; T.W. McGuire (1984). "Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated communication". American Psychologist. 39 (10): 1123–34. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.39.10.1123.
M. Lea; T. O'Shea; P. Fung; R. Spears (1992). "'Flaming' in Computer-Mediated Communication: observation, explanations, implications". Contexts of Computer-Mediated Communication: 89–112.
Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Lea, M. (1998). "Breaching or building social boundaries? SIDE-effects of computer-mediated communication". Communication Research. 25: 689–715. doi:10.1177/009365098025006006.
Donath, Judith S. (1999). "Identity and deception in the virtual community". In Smith, Marc A.; Kollock, Peter. Communities in Cyberspace (illustrated, reprint ed.). Routledge. pp. 29–59. ISBN 978-0-415-19140-1. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
Herring, Susan; Job-Sluder, Kirk; Scheckler, Rebecca; Barab, Sasha (2002). "Searching for Safety Online: Managing "Trolling" in a Feminist Forum" (PDF). Center for Social Informatics – Indiana University. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
J. Zhao, "Where Anonymity Breeds Contempt", The New York Times, 29 November 2010.
Elsner, K. "China Uses an Army of Sockpuppets to Control Public Opinion – and the US Will Too". Liberty Voice. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
Owens, Simon. "The battle to destroy Wikepedia's biggest sockpuppet army". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
Attkisson, Sharyl (2014). Stonewalled: My Fight For the Truth Against the Forces of Obstruction, Intimidation and Harassment in Obama’s Washington. Harper.
National Netword for Oral Health Access (1 October 2012). "Effective Messaging: Fluoridation & the Dental Workforce" (PDF). The Pew Center on the States. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
Gary King; Jennifer Pan; Margaret E. Roberts (1 June 2016). "How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, not Engaged Argument" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2016.
"Behind China's viral curtain". Harvard Gazette. 11 June 2016. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016.
http://gking.harvard.edu/files/gking/files/supplementaryappendixglobaltimeseditorial.pdf
Spruds, Andris; Rožukalne, Anda; et al. (n.d.). "Internet Trolling as a hybrid warfare tool: the case of Latvia". stratcomcoe.org. Riga, LV: NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence (published 28 January 2016). Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
Radford, Ben (2016). Bad Clowns. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-5666-6.
Cox, Ana Marie (16 December 2006). "Making Mischief on the Web". TIME. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
Saunders, Anne (27 September 2006). "Bass aide resigns for fake website postings". Associated Press. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
"Bass Aide Resigns After Posing As Democrat On Blogs". WMUR. 26 September 2006. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
Wolcott, James (6 October 2006). "Political Pieties from a Post-Natal Drip". James Wolcott's Blog – Vanity Fair. Condé Nast. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
Moulitsas, Markos (9 January 2008). "Dems: Ignore 'concern trolls'". TheHill.com. Capitol Hill Publishing Corp. Retrieved 25 March 2009.
Phillips, Whitney. "Internet Troll Sub-Culture's Savage Spoofing of Mainstream Media [Excerpt]". Scientific American. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
"How to be a Great Internet Troll". Fox Sports. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
"Internet without laws a 'recipe for anarchy', 1 April 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
"Facebook takes (small) step against tribute page trolls", TG Daily, 30 March 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
Jones, Gemma (11 September 2012). "Time is up for Twitter trolls and bullies". News.com.au. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
"Twitter trolls attack radio host Ray Hadley, NRL star Robbie Farah". Herald Sun. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
"Twitter makes moves to prevent online trolls". Herald Sun. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
"Internet trolls face up to two years in jail under new laws". BBC News. 19 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
UK Ministry of Justice (20 October 2014). "Internet trolls to face 2 years in prison". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
Tom de Castella; Virginia Brown (14 September 2011). "Trolling: Who does it and why?". BBC News Magazine. BBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2011.
"Georgia Varley-inspired trolling law is waste of time says internet campaigner". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
"Lancashire man JAILED over April Jones Facebook posts". The Register. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
Whitney Phillips (15 May 2015). "Internet Troll Sub-Culture's Savage Spoofing of Mainstream Media [Excerpt]". Scientific American.
"Review: The Newsroom – The Blackout Part 2: Mock Debate: Help me, Rhonda". HitFix.
Beth Hanna (20 August 2012). "'The Newsroom' Episode 9 Review and Recap: 'The Blackout – Thompson on Hollywood". Thompson on Hollywood.
"Inside the online world not indexed by search engines". Washington Post. 26 June 2015.
Ashoka Prasad. "Taking On The Trolls". Newslaundry.
"NL Hafta – Episode 24". Newslaundry. 17 July 2015.
Bond, Robert (1999). "Links, Frames, Meta-tags and Trolls". International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 13. pp. 317–23.
"All that glisters is not (Facebook) gold", CounterMeasures: Security, Privacy & Trust (A TrendMicro Blog). Retrieved 6 April 2010.
Dibbell, Julian (21 September 2009). "The Assclown Offensive: How to Enrage the Church of Scientology". Wired. Retrieved 5 October 2010.

Whiteman, Hilary (28 February 2015). "I will not be silenced: Australian Muslim fights Twitter 'troll army'". CNN. Retrieved 4 March 2015.

Further reading

Walter, T.; Hourizi, R.; Moncur, W.; Pitsillides (2012). Does the Internet Change How We Die And Mourn? An Overview Online.

External links
Look up troll in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trolls (Internet).
Wikinews has related news: UK court jails man for trolling online tribute pages
Trolling advocacy and safety

The Trolling Academy – trolling advice, comment, and training
Cyber Mentors – youth support group run by young people
Get Safe Online – free expert advice on online safety

Background and definitions

Usenet and Bulletin Board Abuse at DMOZ
NetLingo definition
Urban Dictionary definition
Guide to Internetting, "breaks down every type of troll"

Academic and debate

Searching for Safety Online: Managing "Trolling" in a Feminist Forum
How to Respond to Internet Rage
Malwebolence – The World of Web Trolling; New York Times Magazine, By Mattathias Schwartz; 3 August 2008.

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The Legend of Zelda (Japanese: ゼルダの伝説 Hepburn: Zeruda no Densetsu?) is a high-fantasy action-adventure video game series created by Japanese game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka. It is primarily developed and published by Nintendo, although some portable installments have been outsourced to Capcom, Vanpool, and Grezzo. The series' gameplay incorporates elements of action, adventure, and puzzle-solving games. The Legend of Zelda is one of Nintendo's most prominent franchises.

The series centers on Link, the playable character and chief protagonist. Link is often given the task of rescuing Princess Zelda and the kingdom of Hyrule from Ganon, who is the principal antagonist of the series; however, other settings and antagonists have appeared in several titles. The games' plots commonly involve a relic known as the Triforce, a set of three omnipotent golden triangles. The protagonist in each game is usually not the same incarnation of Link, but a few exceptions exist.

Since the original The Legend of Zelda was released in 1986, the series has expanded to include 18 entries on all of Nintendo's major game consoles, as well as a number of spin-offs. An American animated TV series based on the games aired in 1989 and individual manga adaptations commissioned by Nintendo have been produced in Japan since 1997. As of 2011, the series has sold over 62 million copies.
Gameplay[edit]
The Legend of Zelda games feature a mixture of puzzles, action, adventure/battle gameplay, and exploration. These elements have remained constant throughout the series, but with refinements and additions featured in each new game. Later games in the series also include stealth gameplay, where the player must avoid enemies while proceeding through a level, as well as racing elements. Although the games can be beaten with a minimal amount of exploration and side quests, the player is frequently rewarded with helpful items or increased abilities for solving puzzles or exploring hidden areas. Some items are consistent and appear many times throughout the series (such as bombs and bomb flowers, which can be used both as weapons and to open blocked or hidden doorways; boomerangs, which can kill or paralyze enemies; keys for locked doors; magic swords, shields, and bows and arrows), while others are unique to a single game. Though the games contain many role-playing elements (Zelda II: The Adventure of Link is the only one to include an experience system), they emphasize straightforward hack and slash-style combat over the strategic, turn-based or active time combat of games like Final Fantasy. The game's role-playing elements, however, have led to much debate over whether or not the Zelda games should be classified as action role-playing games, a genre on which the series has had a strong influence.[1]

Every game in the main Zelda series has consisted of three principal areas: an overworld in which movement is multidirectional, allowing the player some degree of freedom of action; areas of interaction with other characters (merely caves or hidden rooms in the first game, but expanding to entire towns and cities in subsequent games) in which the player gains special items or advice; and dungeons, areas of labyrinthine layout, usually underground, comprising a wide range of difficult enemies, bosses, and items. Each dungeon usually has one major item inside, which is usually essential for solving many of the puzzles within that dungeon and often plays a crucial role in defeating that dungeon's boss, as well as progressing through the game. In nearly every Zelda game, navigating a dungeon is aided by locating a map, which reveals its layout, and a magic compass, which reveals the location of significant and smaller items such as keys and equipment. In later games, the series includes a special "big key" that would unlock the door to battle the dungeon's boss enemy and open the item chest.

In most Zelda games, the player's life meter is represented as a line of hearts. The life meter is replenished a number of different ways, including picking up hearts left by some defeated enemies, fairies or springs located in specific locations, or using an item such as a potion. Most games feature "heart containers" as the prize for defeating the final boss of a dungeon and "pieces of heart" for completing certain side quests or found in hidden chests; heart containers extend the life meter by one heart, and receiving a varied number of pieces of heart (On average four pieces) do the same as a heart container. Both will completely replenish Link's health.

The games pioneered a number of features that were to become industry standards. The original Legend of Zelda was the first console game with a save function that enabled players to stop playing and then resume later. The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time introduced a targeting system that simplified 3D combat.

Audio[edit]

Koji Kondo, the series' sound director, in 2007
Games in The Legend of Zelda series frequently feature in-game musical instruments, particularly in musical puzzles, which are widespread.[2] Often, instruments trigger game events: for example, the recorder in The Legend of Zelda can reveal secret areas, as well as warp Link to the Dungeon entrances. This warping with music feature has also been used in A Link to the Past and Link's Awakening. In Ocarina of Time, playing instruments is a core part of the game, the player needing to play the instrument through the use of the game controller to succeed.[3] Ocarina of Time is "[one of the] first contemporary non-dance title[s] to feature music-making as part of its gameplay",[4] using music as a heuristic device and requiring the player to utilise songs to progress in the game[5] – a game mechanic that is also present in Majora's Mask.[6]

"The Legend of Zelda Theme" is a recurring piece of music that was created for the first game of the franchise. The composer and sound director of the series, Koji Kondo, initially planned to use Maurice Ravel's Boléro as the game's title theme, but was forced to change it when he learned, late in the game's development cycle, that the copyright for the orchestral piece had not yet expired. As a result, Kondo wrote a new arrangement of the overworld theme within one day.[7] The "Zelda Theme" has topped ScrewAttack's "Top Ten Videogame Themes Ever" list.[8]

Up until Breath of the Wild, the Legend of Zelda series avoided using voice acting in speaking roles, relying instead on written dialogue. Series producer Eiji Aonuma previously stated that as Link is entirely mute, having the other characters speak while Link remains silent "would be off-putting".[9] Also in Breath of the Wild, there will be a different approach to music in that there will be no "theme music" for different locations. Instead, the main sounds will be natural ambience around the player, in addition to some minimalist piano music.[10]

Inspiration[edit]
The Legend of Zelda was principally inspired by Shigeru Miyamoto's "explorations" as a young boy in the hillsides, forests, and caves surrounding his childhood home in Sonobe, Japan where he ventured into forests with secluded lakes, caves, and rural villages. According to Miyamoto, one of his most memorable experiences was the discovery of a cave entrance in the middle of the woods. After some hesitation, he apprehensively entered the cave, and explored its depths with the aid of a lantern. Miyamoto has referred to the creation of the Zelda games as an attempt to bring to life a "miniature garden" for players to play with in each game of the series.[11]

Hearing of American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald's wife Zelda, Miyamoto thought the name sounded "pleasant and significant".[12] Paying tribute, he chose to name the princess after her, and titled it The Legend of Zelda.

Link and the fairy were inspired by Peter Pan and Tinker Bell.[13][14]

The Master Sword was inspired by the Arthurian legend, first mentioned in Welsh mythology; Mabinogion as; 'Caledfwlch' Excalibur.[15][16] The similarities lay with the swords being kept in stone until the chosen one 'hero' takes it out to save the land.

Setting[edit]
An overhead view of a young boy in a green tunic battling creatures
The Legend of Zelda on the NES
Main article: Universe of The Legend of Zelda
The Legend of Zelda takes place predominantly in a medieval Western Europe inspired fantasy land called Hyrule, which has developed a deep history and wide geography over the series' many releases. Much of the backstory of the creation of Hyrule was revealed in the games A Link to the Past, Ocarina of Time, The Wind Waker, Twilight Princess, Skyward Sword, and A Link Between Worlds. Hyrule's principal inhabitants are pointy-eared humanoids called Hylians, which include the player character, Link, and the eponymous princess, Zelda.

According to the in-game backstories, the world of Hyrule was created by the three golden goddesses: Din, Farore and Nayru.[17] Before departing, the goddesses left a sacred artifact called the Triforce, which could grant the wishes of the user. It consisted of three golden triangles that each embodies one of the goddesses' virtues: Power, Courage and Wisdom.[18] However, because the Triforce had no will of its own,[19] it could not judge between good and evil, and so would grant any wish indiscriminately.[20][21] Because of this, it was placed within an alternate world called the "Sacred Realm" or the "Golden Land" until one worthy of its power could obtain it. The Sacred Realm can itself be affected by the heart of those who use the Triforce: those who are pure will make it a paradise, while those who are evil will transform it into a dark realm.[22]

In Skyward Sword, the Triforce was sought by a demon king named Demise,[23] and after a long battle, Demise was sealed away within the Temple of the goddess Hylia, guardian of the Triforce.[18][24] Hylia, placing the Hylians on a floating island (called Skyloft) in the sky to protect them, orchestrated a means to stop the demon from escaping: creating the Goddess Sword (later becoming the Master Sword) for her chosen hero[25] and discarding her divinity to be reborn among the people of Skyloft.[26] In time, Zelda and Link (the reborn Hylia and her predestined warrior), enacted the goddess' plan and Demise was destroyed. However, Demise vowed that his rage would be reborn and forever plague those descended from Link and Zelda.[27] That prophecy came to fruition in Ocarina of Time, when Ganondorf's attempt to get the Triforce scattered it with him gaining the Triforce of Power. The Triforce of Wisdom ended up with the Hylian princesses descended from Zelda, each named after her, while the Triforce of Courage is passed to a youth named Link across generations. While the Triforces of Power and Wisdom have been part of the series since the original The Legend of Zelda, it was only in Zelda II: The Adventure of Link that the Triforce of Courage was first introduced, being obtained by Link at the end of his quest. The Triforce, or even a piece of it, is not always distributed as a whole. Such as in The Wind Waker, Link must find all the pieces (called Triforce Shards) of the Triforce of Courage before he can return to Hyrule. Even in the original The Legend of Zelda, Zelda breaks her Triforce of Wisdom into 8 pieces for Link to find, before she was captured by Ganon.

The fictional universe established by the Zelda games sets the stage for each adventure. Some games take place in different lands with their own back-stories. Termina and Lorule serve as parallel worlds to Hyrule,[28] Hytopia is a connected kingdom,[29] and Koholint is an island far away from Hyrule that appears to be part of a dream.[30]

Fictional chronology[edit]
The Legend of Zelda series chronology
Skyward Sword
The Minish Cap
Four Swords
Ocarina of Time
The Decline of Hyrule The Twilight Realm A New World
A Link to the Past
Oracle of Seasons & Ages
Link's Awakening
A Link Between Worlds
Tri Force Heroes
The Legend of Zelda
The Adventure of Link
Majora's Mask
Twilight Princess
Four Swords Adventures
The Wind Waker
Phantom Hourglass
Spirit Tracks
The chronology of the Legend of Zelda series was subject of much debate among fans until an official timeline was released on December 21, 2011, within the collector's book Hyrule Historia, which was originally exclusive to Japan and was later released in the United States.[31][32] Prior to its release, producers confirmed the existence of a confidential document, which connected all the games.[33][34] Certain materials and developer statements once partially established an official timeline of the released installments. Zelda II: The Adventure of Link is a direct sequel to the original The Legend of Zelda, and takes place several years later.[35][36] The third game, A Link to the Past, is a prequel to the first two titles,[37][38][39] and is directly followed by Link's Awakening.[40][41] Ocarina of Time is a prequel that takes the story many centuries back; according to character designer Satoru Takizawa, it was meant to implicitly tell the Imprisoning War from the manual of A Link to the Past, with Majora's Mask directly following its ending.[42][43] Skyward Sword is then a prequel to Ocarina of Time.[44] Twilight Princess is set more than 100 years after Ocarina of Time.[45][46]

The Wind Waker is parallel, and takes place in the other timeline branch, more than a century after the adult era of Ocarina of Time.[45][46] Phantom Hourglass is a continuation of the story from The Wind Waker,[47] and is followed by Spirit Tracks, which is set about 100 years later on a supercontinent far away from the setting of The Wind Waker.[48] At the time of its release, Four Swords for the Game Boy Advance was considered the oldest tale in the series' chronology, with Four Swords Adventures set sometime after its events.[49] The Minish Cap precedes the two games, telling of the origins of villain Vaati and the creation of the Four Sword.[50] A Link Between Worlds takes place six generations after Link to the Past. Important events that occur in the game include the Triforce being reunited, and Ganon being resurrected.[51]

Nintendo's 2011 timeline announcement subsequently posits that following Ocarina of Time, the timeline splits into three alternate routes: in one, Link fails to defeat Ganon, leading into A Link to the Past, Oracle of Seasons and Oracle of Ages, Link's Awakening, The Legend of Zelda and The Adventure of Link. In the second and third, Link is successful, leading to a timeline split between his childhood (when Zelda sends him back in time to tell the Zelda in the past of the horrifying fate of Hyrule) and adulthood (where the Zelda from the future lives on to try and rebuild the kingdom). His childhood continues with Majora's Mask, followed by Twilight Princess and Four Swords Adventures. The timeline from his adult life continues into Wind Waker, Phantom Hourglass and Spirit Tracks.

In the early 2000s, Nintendo of America released a timeline on the official website of the series, which interpreted all stories up to the Oracle games as the adventures of a single protagonist named Link.[52] At one point, translator Dan Owsen and his coworkers at Nintendo of America had conceived another complete timeline and intended to make it available online. However, the Japanese series developers rejected the idea so the timeline would be kept open to the imagination of the players.[53]

Characters[edit]
See also: Characters in The Legend of Zelda series
Link[edit]
Main article: Link (The Legend of Zelda)
The central protagonist of the The Legend of Zelda series, Link is the name of various young men who characteristically wear a green tunic and a pointed cap. In most games, the player can give Link a different name before the start of the adventure, and he will be referred by that given name throughout by the non-player characters (NPCs). The various Links each have a special title, such as "Hero of Time", "Hero of the Winds" or "Hero chosen by the gods". Link is left-handed, with two exceptions. In the Wii version of Twilight Princess, Link is right-handed due to the "mirroring" used to accommodate the right-handed control scheme,[54] which flips the entire game world's layout from that of its GameCube counterpart. Link is right-handed in the title Skyward Sword for the same reason. In the manual for the original game, he is depicted as being right-handed, and in the game itself, Link is seen as ambidextrous because whether he is facing left or right, his sword is in the "down screen side". Like many silent protagonists in video games, Link does not speak, only producing grunts, yells, or similar sounds. Despite the player not seeing the dialogue, it is referenced second-hand by in-game characters, showing that he is not, in fact, mute. Link is shown as a silent protagonist so that the audience is able to have their own thoughts as to how their Link would answer the characters instead of him having scripted responses.

Princess Zelda[edit]
Main article: Princess Zelda
Princess Zelda is the princess of Hyrule and the guardian of the Triforce of Wisdom. Her name is present in many of her female ancestors and descendants. While most titles require Link to save Zelda from Ganon, she sometimes plays a supporting role in battle, using magical powers and weapons such as Light Arrows to aid Link. With the exception of the CD-i games (which were not official Nintendo games), she was not playable in the main series until Spirit Tracks, where she becomes a spirit and can possess a Phantom Knight that can be controlled by the player. Zelda appears under various other aliases and alter egos, including Sheik (in Ocarina of Time) and Tetra (in The Wind Waker and Phantom Hourglass). In Skyward Sword, it is revealed that the Zelda of that game is a reincarnation of the goddess Hylia, whose power flows through the royal bloodline. Shigeru Miyamoto used the name "Zelda" from American novelist Zelda Fitzgerald.

Ganondorf[edit]
Main article: Ganon
Ganon, also known as Ganondorf in his humanoid form, is the main antagonist and the final boss in the majority of Zelda games. In the series, Ganondorf is the leader of a race of desert brigands called the Gerudo, which consists entirely of female warriors save for one man born every one hundred years. He is significantly taller than other human NPCs, but his looks vary between games. His specific motives vary from game to game, but most often his plans include him kidnapping Princess Zelda and planning to achieve domination of Hyrule and presumably the world beyond it. To this end, he seeks the Triforce, a powerful magical relic. He often possesses a portion of the Triforce called the Triforce of Power, which gives him great strength. However, it is often not enough to accomplish his ends, leading him to hunt the remaining Triforce pieces. Unlike Link, Zelda, and most other recurring characters, he is actually the same person in every game, with the exception of Four Swords Adventures, where he is a reincarnation of the original. In each game the battles with him are different and he fights using different styles. The game Skyward Sword indicates that Ganon is a reincarnation of an evil deity known as Demise.

History[edit]
Timeline of release years
1986 The Legend of Zelda
1987 The Adventure of Link
1988
1989
1990
1991 A Link to the Past
1992
1993 Link's Awakening
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998 Ocarina of Time
1999
2000 Majora's Mask
2001 Oracle of Seasons and Oracle of Ages
2002 Four Swords
The Wind Waker
2003
2004 Four Swords Adventures
The Minish Cap
2005
2006 Twilight Princess
2007 Phantom Hourglass
2008
2009 Spirit Tracks
2010
2011 Skyward Sword
2012
2013 A Link Between Worlds
2014
2015 Tri Force Heroes
2016
2017 Breath of the Wild
1980s[edit]

The first Legend of Zelda game appeared on the Famicom Disk System in 1986. It was later converted into a cartridge game for the American NES.
The Legend of Zelda, the first game of the series, was first released in Japan on February 21, 1986, on the Famicom Disk System.[55] A cartridge version, using battery-backed memory, was released in the United States on August 22, 1987, and Europe on November 27, 1987. The game features a "Second Quest," accessible either upon completing the game, or by registering one's name as "ZELDA" when starting a new quest. The Second Quest features different dungeons and item placement, and more difficult enemies.[56]

The second game, Zelda II: The Adventure of Link, was released for the Famicom Disk System in Japan in January 14, 1987,[55] and for the Nintendo Entertainment System in Europe in November 1988 and North America in December 1988. The game exchanged the top-down perspective for side-scrolling (though the top-down point of view was retained for overworld areas), and introduced RPG elements (such as experience points) not used previously or thereafter in the series. The Legend of Zelda and Zelda II were released in gold-coloured cartridges instead of the console's regular grey cartridges. Both were re-released in the final years of the Nintendo Entertainment System with grey cartridges.

1990s[edit]
Four years later, The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past returned to the top-down view (under a 3/4 perspective), and added the concept of an alternate dimension, the Dark World. The game was released for the Super NES on November 21, 1991.[55] It was later re-released for the Game Boy Advance on March 14, 2003, in North America, on a cartridge with Four Swords,[55] the first multiplayer Zelda, and then through Nintendo's Virtual Console service on January 22, 2007. In addition, both this game (unchanged, except for being converted into a downloadable format)[57] and an exclusive "loosely based" sequel (which used the same game engine) called BS Zelda no Densetsu Inishie no Sekiban[58] were released on the Satellaview in Japan on March 2, 1997, and March 30, 1997, respectively.

In 1994, near the end of the Famicom's lifespan, the original Famicom game was re-released in cartridge format.[59] A modified version, BS Zelda no Densetsu, was released for the Super Famicom's satellite-based expansion, Satellaview, on August 6, 1995, in Japan. A second Satellaview title, BS Zelda no Densetsu MAP2 was released for the Satellaview on December 30, 1995. Both titles featured rearranged dungeons, an altered overworld, and new voice-acted plot-lines.[60]

The next game, Link's Awakening, is the first Zelda for Nintendo's Game Boy handheld, and the first set outside Hyrule and to exclude Princess Zelda. It was released in 1993, and re-released, in full color, as a launch title for the Game Boy Color in 1998 as Link's Awakening DX. This re-release features additions such as an extra color-based dungeon and a photo shop that allows interaction with the Game Boy Printer.

A young boy holds a sword in a dungeon lit by a candle
Ocarina of Time, the first 3D-styled game of the franchise
After a five-year hiatus, the series made the transition to 3D with Ocarina of Time for the Nintendo 64, which was released in November 1998. This game, initially known as Zelda 64, retains the core gameplay of the previous 2D games, and was very successful commercially and critically. It ranks highly on IGN and EGM's "greatest games of all time" lists, and scored perfect scores in several video game publications.[61] In February 2006, it was ranked by Nintendo Power as the best game released for a Nintendo console.[62] The game was originally developed for the poorly selling, Japanese-only Nintendo 64DD, but was ported to cartridge format when the 64DD hardware was delayed.[63] A new gameplay mechanic, lock-on targeting (called "Z-targeting" as that is the controller button used), is used in the game, which focuses the camera on a nearby target and alters the player's actions relative to that target.[64] Such mechanics allow precise sword fighting in a 3D space. The game heavily uses context-sensitive button play, which enabled the player to control various actions with Link using only one button on the Nintendo 64's game pad. Each action was handled slightly differently but all used the 'A' button to perform. For instance, standing next to a block and pressing 'A' made Link grab it (enabling him to push/pull it), but moving forwards into a block and pressing 'A' allowed Link to climb the block. The 'B' button was used only as an attack button. The game featured the first appearance of Link's horse, Epona, allowing Link to travel quickly across land and fire arrows from horseback. Those who preordered the game received a gold-coloured cartridge in a limited edition box with a golden plastic card affixed, reading "Collector's Edition".[65] In some stores that had this "Collector's Edition" quickly sold out, a small and rare Zelda pin was given instead. It is the sword and shield emblem with "Zelda" written on it. Very few of them are known to remain.

Ocarina of Time was re-released on the GameCube in 2002, when it was offered as a pre-order incentive for The Wind Waker in the U.S., Canada and Japan.[66] Europe continued to receive it free in every copy of The Wind Waker, except for the discounted Player's Choice version. It includes what is widely believed to be the remnants of a cancelled 64DD expansion for Ocarina of Time known as Ura Zelda in early development. Named Ocarina of Time Master Quest, the game was given the addition of revamped, more difficult dungeon layouts.[66] Ocarina of Time was included as part of Collector's Edition for the GameCube in 2003.[67] It is now available through the Wii's Virtual Console service.[68] In 2011, Nintendo released a new version of the game in stereoscopic 3D for the Nintendo 3DS titled The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time 3D. In July 2015, Nintendo rereleased it for the Wii U Virtual Console.[69]

2000s[edit]
Ocarina of Time's follow-up, Majora's Mask, was released in April 2000. It uses the same 3D game engine as the previous game,[70] and added a time-based concept, in which Link, the protagonist, relives the events of three days as many times as needed to complete the game's objectives. It was originally called Zelda Gaiden,[71] a Japanese title that translates as Zelda Side story. Gameplay changed significantly; in addition to the time-limit, Link can use masks to transform into creatures with unique abilities. While Majora's Mask retains the graphical style of Ocarina of Time, it is also a departure, particularly in its atmosphere. It features motion-blur, unlike its predecessor. The game is darker,[70] dealing with death and tragedy in a manner not previously seen in the series, and has a sense of impending doom, as a large moon slowly descends upon the land of Termina to destroy all life. All copies of Majora's Mask are gold cartridges. A limited "Collector's Edition" lenticular cartridge label was offered as the pre-order incentive. Copies of the game that are not collector's editions feature a normal sticker cartridge label. Majora's Mask is included in the Collector's Edition,[67] and is available on the Virtual Console, as well as a 3D port for the portable 3DS console.

The next two games, Oracle of Seasons and Oracle of Ages, were released simultaneously for the Game Boy Color, and interact using passwords[72] or a Game Link Cable.[73] After one game has been completed, the player is given a password that allows the other game to be played as a sequel.[72] They were developed by Flagship in conjunction with Nintendo, with supervision from Miyamoto. After the team experimented with porting the original The Legend of Zelda to the Game Boy Color, they decided to make an original trilogy[74] to be called the "Triforce Series".[75] When the password system linking the three games proved too troublesome, the concept was reduced to two games at Miyamoto's suggestion.[76] These two games became Oracle of Ages, which is more puzzle-based, and Oracle of Seasons, which is more action-oriented.[77]

A young boy and a young girl are on a pirate ship; one of its sails with the Jolly Roger is in the background.
The cel-shaded art style of The Wind Waker
When Nintendo revealed the GameCube on August 24, 2000, the day before Nintendo's SpaceWorld 2000 exposition,[78] a software demonstration showed a realistically styled real-time duel between Ganondorf and Link. Fans and the media speculated that the battle might be from a Zelda game in development.[79] At Spaceworld 2001, Nintendo showed a cel-shaded Zelda title, later released as The Wind Waker in December 2002. Due to poor reception, nothing further was shown until a playable demonstration was ready. Miyamoto felt The Wind Waker would "extend Zelda's reach to all ages".[80][81] The gameplay centres on controlling wind with a baton called the "Wind Waker" and sailing a small boat around an island-filled ocean, retaining similar gameplay mechanics as the previous 3D games in the series.

Following the release of The Wind Waker came The Legend of Zelda: Collector's Edition, which included the original The Legend of Zelda, Zelda II, Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, and a demo of The Wind Waker. GameSpot noted that Majora's Mask suffered from a frame rate which appeared choppier and inconsistencies in the audio.[82] This compilation was never sold commercially, and originally could only be obtained by purchasing a GameCube bundled with the disc,[83][84] (in North America, Europe and Australia), by registering a GameCube and two games at Nintendo.com,[83] or by subscribing or renewing a subscription to Nintendo Power (in North America) or Club Nintendo in Sweden.[83] In the UK, 1000 copies were made available through the Club Nintendo Stars Catalogue program.[84] After these were quickly claimed, Nintendo gave a copy to customers who mailed in proof of purchases from select GameCube games.[84]

The next game released in the series was Four Swords Adventures for the GameCube, which was released in early 2004 in Japan and America, and January 2005 in Europe. Based on the handheld Four Swords, Four Swords Adventures was another deviation from previous Zelda gameplay, focusing on level-based and multiplayer gameplay. The game contains 24 levels and a map screen; there is no connecting overworld. For multiplayer features, each player must use a Game Boy Advance system linked to the GameCube via a Nintendo GameCube Game Boy Advance cable. The game features a single-player campaign, in which using a Game Boy Advance is optional.

Four Swords Adventures includes two gameplay modes: "Hyrulean Adventure", with a plot and gameplay similar to other Zelda games, and "Shadow Battle", in which multiple Links, played by multiple players, battle each other. The Japanese and Korean versions include an exclusive third segment, "Navi Trackers" (originally designed as the stand-alone game "Tetra's Trackers"), which contains spoken dialogue for most of the characters, unlike other games in The Legend of Zelda series.

In November 2004 in Japan and Europe, and January 2005 in America, Nintendo released The Minish Cap for the Game Boy Advance. In The Minish Cap Link can shrink in size using a mystical, sentient hat named Ezlo. While shrunk, he can see previously explored parts of a dungeon from a different perspective, and enter areas through otherwise-impassable openings.

A man is on a horse. In the foreground, an imp rides a wolf.
Promotional artwork for Twilight Princess
In November 2006, Twilight Princess was released as the first Zelda game on the Wii, and later, in December 2006, as the last official Nintendo game for the GameCube, the console for which it was originally developed. The Wii version features a reversed world where everything that is in the west on the GameCube is in the east on the Wii, and vice versa. The display is mirrored in order to make Link right-handed, to make use of the Wii remote feel more natural. The game chronicles the struggle of an older Link to clear the troubles of the interacting "Twilight Realm", a mysterious force that appears around Hyrule. When he enters this realm, he is transformed into a wolf, and loses the ability to use his sword, shield or other items, but gains other abilities such as sharpened senses from his new form. Twilight Princess includes an incarnation of Link's horse, Epona, for fast transportation, and features mounted battle scenarios including boss battles that were not seen in previous titles. Twilight Princess diverted from the cel shading of Wind Waker and went for graphics featuring more detailed textures, giving the game a darker atmosphere, thus making it feel more adult than previous games.

At the 2006 Game Developers Conference, a trailer for Phantom Hourglass for the Nintendo DS was shown. It revealed traditional top-down Zelda gameplay optimised for the DS' features, with a cel-shaded 3d graphical style similar to The Wind Waker. At E3 2006, Nintendo confirmed the game's status as a direct sequel to The Wind Waker,[85] and released an extensive playable demo, including a multiplayer mode with "capture the flag" elements. Phantom Hourglass was released on June 23, 2007, in Japan, October 1, 2007, in North America and October 19, 2007, in Europe.

The next Legend of Zelda for the DS, The Legend of Zelda: Spirit Tracks, was released December 7, 2009, in North America and December 11, 2009, in the UK. In this game, the 'spirit tracks', railroads which chain an ancient evil, are disappearing from Hyrule. Zelda and Link go to the 'Spirit Tower' (the ethereal point of convergence for the tracks) to find out why. But villains steal Zelda's body for the resurrection of the Demon King. Rendered disembodied, Zelda is left a spirit, and only Link (and a certain few sages) can see her. Together they go on a quest to restore the spirit tracks, defeat the Demon King, and return Zelda to her body. Using a modified engine of that used in Phantom Hourglass, the notably new feature in this game is that the Phantom Guardians seen in Phantom Hourglass are, through a series of events, periodically controllable. It was the first time in the series that both Link & Zelda work together on the quest.

2010s[edit]
In April 2008, Miyamoto stated that "the Zelda team is forming again to work on new games".[86] Miyamoto clarified in July that the Zelda team had been working on a new Zelda game for the Wii.[87] In January 2010, Nintendo Executive Satoru Iwata stated that the game would be coming out at some time in 2010, and confirmed that the game would make use of the Wii's MotionPlus feature, which had been announced too late to be integrated into the Twilight Princess Wii release. The game's subtitle was announced at E3 in 2010 as Skyward Sword, but its release was delayed to 2011.[88] The game, the earliest in the Legend of Zelda timeline, reveals the origins of Hyrule, Ganon and many elements featured in previous games. It was released on November 20, 2011; the first run included a 25th Anniversary CD of fully orchestrated music from various Zelda games, including Skyward Sword.

In addition, Nintendo celebrated the 25th anniversary of The Legend of Zelda game by releasing a Zelda game for all its current consoles in 2011: Link's Awakening in the 3DS's Virtual Console on June 7, Ocarina of Time 3D for the 3DS in mid-June, Four Swords Anniversary Edition[89] from September 28, 2011, to February 20, 2012, as a free DSiWare download and Skyward Sword for the Wii, which was released on November 18, 2011, in Europe; on November 20, 2011, in the United States; and on November 24, 2011, in Australia. A limited edition Zelda 25th anniversary 3DS was released on December 1, 2011, in Australia.[90]

The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker HD, a remake of the original GameCube game, was released by Nintendo on September 20, 2013, digitally on the Nintendo eShop in North America with a retail release on September 26, in Japan, October 4, in North America and Europe, October 5, in Australia. A month later, Nintendo released The Legend of Zelda: A Link Between Worlds for the Nintendo 3DS, which takes place in the same setting as A Link to the Past.[91][92]

Nintendo showcased a demo reel at E3 2011, which depicted Link fighting a monster in HD.[93] In January 2013, Nintendo revealed that a new Legend of Zelda game was being planned for the Wii U.[94] The game was officially teased at E3 2014, and was scheduled to be released in 2015. However, in March 2015, the game was delayed to 2016.[95] In April 2016, the game was delayed again to 2017; it was also announced that it would be simultaneously released on the Wii U and NX.[96] At E3 2016, the game was showcased under the official title, The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild.[97]

Nintendo released a second 3DS remake, The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask 3D, in North America and Europe on February 13, 2015, and in Japan and Australia on February 14, 2015.

At E3 2015, Nintendo announced The Legend of Zelda: Tri Force Heroes, a cooperative multiplayer game released for the 3DS in October 2015.[98] The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess HD, a high-definition remastering of Twilight Princess, was released for the Wii U in March 2016.[99]

Other games[edit]
CD-i games[edit]

The Zelda games for the Philips CD-i are infamous for their poor quality and are not canon.
Main article: CD-i games from The Legend of Zelda series
A series of video games was developed and released for the Philips CD-i in the early 1990s as a product of a compromise between Philips and Nintendo, after the companies failed to develop a CD-ROM peripheral for the Super NES. Created independently with no observation by or influence from Nintendo, the games are Link: The Faces of Evil and Zelda: The Wand of Gamelon, together with Zelda's Adventure. Nintendo never acknowledged them in the Zelda timeline, and they are considered to be in a separate, self-contained canon. These games are widely acknowledged to be the worst installments in the series.[100]

LCD games[edit]
Main article: LCD games from The Legend of Zelda series
Three Zelda-themed LCD games were created between 1989 and 1992. The Zelda version of Nintendo's Game & Watch series was released first in August 1989 as a dual-screen handheld electronic game similar in appearance to today's Nintendo DS. It was re-released in 1998 as a Toymax, Inc. Mini Classic and was later included as an unlockable extra in Game & Watch Gallery 4, a 2002 compilation for the Game Boy Advance. While the Game & Watch Zelda was developed in-house by Nintendo, the subsequent two LCD games were developed by third parties under license by Nintendo. In October 1989, The Legend of Zelda was developed by Nelsonic as part of its Game Watch line. This game was an actual digital watch with primitive gameplay based on the original Legend of Zelda. In 1992, Epoch Co. developed Zelda no Densetsu: Kamigami no Triforce for its Barcode Battler II console. The game employed card-scanning technology similar to the later-released Nintendo e-Reader.

Cancelled games[edit]
Throughout the lifespan of the The Legend of Zelda series, a number of titles (including main series titles as well as re-releases and spin-offs) in varying states of completeness have had their releases cancelled. Perhaps the earliest of these was Gottlieb's The Legend of Zelda Pinball Machine (cancelled 1993). After securing a license from Nintendo to produce two Nintendo-franchise-based pinball machines, pinball designer Jon Norris was tasked with designing the table. Before it was completed, Gottlieb decided to repurpose the game with an American Gladiators theme. Licensing for this version ultimately fell through and the game was released as simply Gladiators (November 1993).[101]

In 1998, Nintendo cancelled The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time Ura. Originally intended as an expansion disk for Ocarina of Time on the Nintendo 64DD, poor sales figures for the N64DD system led Nintendo to cancel its plans for the release. In 2002, Nintendo released a bonus disc called The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time Master Quest. It contained emulated versions of Ocarina of Time and Ocarina of Time Master Quest with a number of modifications originally planned for release in Ocarina of Time Ura including GUI textures and text modified to reflect the Nintendo GameCube.[citation needed]

In 2001, under license from Nintendo, Capcom cancelled the release of The Legend of Zelda: Mystical Seed of Courage for Game Boy Color. Working with a Capcom team, Yoshiki Okamoto was originally tasked with designing a series of three Zelda titles for the Game Boy Color.[102] Referred to as the "Triforce Series",[103] the games were known as The Legend of Zelda: The Mysterious Acorn: Chapter of Power, Chapter of Wisdom, and Chapter of Courage in Japan[104] and The Legend of Zelda: Mystical Seed of Power, Mystical Seed of Wisdom, and Mystical Seed of Courage in the US.[105] The games were to interact using a password system,[103] but the limitations of this system and the difficulty of coordinating three games proved too complicated, so the team scaled back to two titles at Miyamoto's suggestion.[106][107] The Legend of Zelda: Oracle of Seasons was adapted from Mystical Seed of Power, The Legend of Zelda: Oracle of Ages was adapted from Mystical Seed of Wisdom, and Mystical Seed of Courage was canceled.[103]

Before its 2006 release, both Link and Samus from the Metroid series were planned to be playable characters for the Wii version of Marvel: Ultimate Alliance. However, they didn't make the final release because they weren't Marvel characters.[108]

In 2011, an unnamed Zelda 25th Anniversary Compilation was cancelled. To celebrate the 25th anniversary of the series, Nintendo of America originally had planned to release a compilation of titles together for the Wii, similar to the collector's edition disc released for the GameCube in 2003. However Nintendo of Japan's president Satoru Iwata and Shigeru Miyamoto disagreed in releasing it, believing it would be too similar to the Super Mario 25th Anniversary game released in 2010.[109]

Spin-off games[edit]
As the franchise has grown in popularity, several titles have been released that are set within or star a minor character from the universe of The Legend of Zelda but are not directly connected to the main The Legend of Zelda series. Both map versions of the title BS Zelda no Densetsu for the Satellaview (released in August and December 1995) could be considered spin-offs due to the fact that they star the "Hero of Light" (portrayed by either the Satellaview's male or female avatar) as opposed to Link as the protagonist of Hyrule. A third Satellaview title released in March 1997, BS Zelda no Densetsu Inishie no Sekiban (BS The Legend of Zelda: Ancient Stone Tablets) could also be considered a spin-off for the same reason. Other spin-off titles include Freshly-Picked Tingle's Rosy Rupeeland for the Nintendo DS – an RPG released in September 2006 in Japan (Summer of 2007 in the UK) to star supporting character Tingle. A second Tingle title is Tingle's Balloon Fight DS for the Nintendo DS. Here Tingle again stars in this spin-off arcade style platformer, released in April 2007 only in Japan and available solely to Platinum Club Nintendo members. In addition to titles in which Link does not star as the protagonist, games such as the shooter title, Link's Crossbow Training (for the Wii), have been considered spin-offs due to the lack of a traditional "Save Hyrule" plot-line. Released in November 2007 as a bundle with the Wii Zapper, this game allows players to assume the identity of Link as he progresses through a series of tests to perfect his crossbow marksmanship. Color Changing Tingle's Love Balloon Trip was released in Japan in 2009 as a sequel to Freshly-Picked Tingle's Rosy Rupeeland. Hyrule Warriors, a crossover game combining elements of Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda series and Tecmo Koei's Dynasty Warriors series, was announced for the Wii U video game system in December 2013 and was released in North America in September 2014. Hyrule Warriors Legends, a version for the Nintendo 3DS containing more content and gameplay modifications, was released in March 2016. To commemorate the launch of the My Nintendo loyalty program in March 2016, Nintendo released My Nintendo Picross: The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, a Picross puzzle game developed by Jupiter for download to the Nintendo 3DS.[110][111]

Cameos[edit]
Characters from and references to The Legend of Zelda series have appeared in a variety of other video games that go beyond what is considered a typical cameo appearance. This may include major story elements, character development, and even affect major game features.

Link appears as a fighter in Super Smash Bros. for the Nintendo 64. Likewise in Super Smash Bros. Melee for the GameCube, he appears alongside Zelda (who is able to transform into Sheik), Ganondorf, and Young Link (the child version of Link from Ocarina of Time). These characters all have their basic appearance and items as seen in Ocarina of Time. In Super Smash Bros. Brawl for the Wii, all of Melee's Zelda characters make a return, upgraded to their models and items from Twilight Princess (with Sheik using an unused design from Twilight Princess' development), with the exception of Young Link, who is replaced by Toon Link (from The Wind Waker). Each of these characters return in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U, with Zelda and Sheik now separated into two different characters. Each game in the Super Smash Bros. series features several stages and items based on the Legend of Zelda franchise.
Link, using his Ocarina of Time design, appears as an exclusive fighter in the GameCube version of Soulcalibur II.
Link, using a design based on Skyward Sword, appears as a playable character in Mario Kart 8 via downloadable content, along with a "Hyrule Circuit" racetrack themed on The Legend of Zelda series.[112] The first pack is named after the series.
Link can be seen sleeping in one of the hotel beds in Rose Town on the Super NES game Super Mario RPG: Legend of the Seven Stars.
Link features prominently in several microgames from the WarioWare series.
In the Nintendo/Skip Ltd. game Captain Rainbow Crazy Tracy from Link's Awakening is one of the featured characters, seeking to enslave all men in the world.[113]
One of the levels (World 5-2) in Super Mario 3D Land references The Legend of Zelda.
In Sonic Lost World, a DLC stage based on The Legend of Zelda series was released on March 27, 2014, named "The Legend of Zelda Zone". The stage features design elements from multiple entries in the Zelda series, including Ocarina of Time, Twilight Princess, and Skyward Sword. While built around the core gameplay mechanics of Sonic Lost World, "The Legend of Zelda Zone" incorporates some elements from the Zelda series, including a heart-based vitality meter, rupee collection, and a miniature dungeon to explore.[114]
A picture of the Link from the original NES game can be formed on World Star-1 in Super Mario 3D World by stepping on the buttons while defeating enemies.
Items based on The Legend of Zelda, including furniture, clothing, wallpaper, and carpeting, can be collected in each of the Animal Crossing games. Additionally, a fully playable version of the original The Legend of Zelda for NES can be accessed in the first Animal Crossing title through the use of a cheat device.
In Bayonetta and Bayonetta 2 on the Wii U, there is an unlockable costume for Bayonetta called Hero of Hyrule that changes Bayonetta's clothing to Link's, complete with the Master Sword and Hylian Shield on her right arm.
Several costume power ups based on The Legend of Zelda, with at least one being free DLC, can be unlocked through normal gameplay or via Amiibo in Super Mario Maker.
A special gold version of the Game Boy Camera features Ocarina of Time themed Zelda stamps instead of the usual Mario stamps found in all other Game Boy Camera color variants.
Reception and legacy[edit]
Aggregate review scores
As of April 29, 2016.
Game GameRankings Metacritic
The Legend of Zelda (NES) 84%[115]
(GBA) 79%[116] (GBA) 84[117]
The Adventure of Link (NES) 78%[118]
(GBA) 69%[119] (GBA) 73[120]
A Link to the Past (SNES) 93%[121]
(GBA) 92%[122] (GBA) 95[123]
Link's Awakening (GB) 90%[124]
(GBC) 91%[125] –
Ocarina of Time (N64) 98%[126]
(GC) 90%[127]
(3DS) 94%[128] (N64) 99[129]
(GC) 91[130]
(3DS) 94[131]
Majora's Mask (N64) 92%[132]
(3DS) 90%[133] (N64) 95[134]
(3DS) 89[135]
Oracle of Seasons and Ages (Seasons) 91%[136]
(Ages) 92%[137] –
Four Swords (NDS) 85%[138] (NDS) 85[139]
The Wind Waker (GC) 94%[140]
(Wii U) 91%[141] (GC) 96[142]
(Wii U) 90[143]
Four Swords Adventures (GC) 85%[144] (GC) 86[145]
The Minish Cap (GBA) 90%[146] (GBA) 89[147]
Twilight Princess (GC) 95%[148]
(Wii) 95%[149]
(Wii U) 86%[150] (GC) 96[151]
(Wii) 95[152]
(Wii U) 86[153]
Phantom Hourglass (NDS) 89%[154] (NDS) 90[155]
Spirit Tracks (NDS) 87%[156] (NDS) 87[157]
Skyward Sword (Wii) 93%[158] (Wii) 93[159]
A Link Between Worlds (3DS) 91%[160] (3DS) 91[161]
Tri Force Heroes (3DS) 72%[162] (3DS) 73[163]
The Legend of Zelda series has received outstanding levels of acclaim from critics and the public. Ocarina of Time, The Wind Waker and Skyward Sword have each received a perfect 40/40 score (10/10 by four reviewers) by Japanese Famitsu magazine,[164][165] making Zelda one of the few series with multiple perfect scores. Ocarina of Time was even listed by Guinness World Records as the highest-rated video game in history, citing its Metacritic score of 99 out of 100.[166] Computer and Video Games awarded The Wind Waker and Twilight Princess a score of 10/10.[167][168] A Link to the Past has won Gold Award from Electronic Gaming Monthly. In Nintendo Power's Top 200 countdown in 2004, Ocarina of Time took first place, and seven other Zelda games placed in the top 40.[169] Twilight Princess was named Game of the Year by X-Play, GameTrailers, 1UP, Electronic Gaming Monthly, Spacey Awards, Game Informer, GameSpy, Nintendo Power, IGN, and many other websites. The editors of review aggregator websites Game Rankings, IGN and Metacritic have all given Ocarina of Time their highest aggregate scores.[170] Game Informer has awarded The Wind Waker, Twilight Princess, Skyward Sword, and A Link Between Worlds with scores of 10/10. Phantom Hourglass was named DS Game of the Year by IGN and GameSpy.[171][172] Airing December 10, 2011, Spike TV's annual Video Game Awards gave the series the first ever "Hall of Fame Award", which Miyamoto accepted in person.[173] Ocarina of Time and its use of melodic themes to identify different game regions has been called a reverse of Richard Wagner's use of leitmotifs to identify characters and themes.[174] Ocarina of Time was so well received that sales increased for real ocarinas.[175] IGN praised the music of Majora's Mask for its brilliance despite its heavy use of MIDI. It has been ranked the seventh-greatest game by Electronic Gaming Monthly, whereas Ocarina of Time was ranked eighth.[176][177] The series won GameFAQs Best Series Ever competition.[178]

As of April 2011, the The Legend of Zelda franchise has sold 62 million copies,[179] with the original The Legend of Zelda being the fourth best-selling NES game of all time.[180][181] The series was ranked as the 64th top game (collectively) by Next Generation in 1996.[182] According to British film magazine Empire, with "the most vividly-realised world and the most varied game-play of any title on any console, Zelda is a solid bet for the best game series ever."[183]

Impact[edit]
Among celebrities
Professional wrestler Cody Runnels (better known as Cody Rhodes) is a fan of the series and has stated he replays A Link to the Past annually. His wrestling boots feature a Triforce symbol.[184][185]
Actor/comedian Robin Williams revealed in a November 26, 2009, interview with Jimmy Fallon that his daughter Zelda Rae is named after the title character in the series.[186] In 2011, both Williams and his daughter starred together in an advertisement for Ocarina of Time 3D.[187]
In August 2013, talk-show host Jimmy Fallon stated that The Legend of Zelda was his favorite video game.[188]
In film
The 2010 film adaptation of Scott Pilgrim vs. the World makes multiple references to the Zelda games and the soundtrack, including use of the "Fairy Fountain" theme in one of the film's dream sequences, and the chest opening sound effect and opening theme from A Link to the Past.[citation needed]
In literature
The cover of the first edition of Nicholas Andrews's humorous fantasy novel, The Adventure Tournament (2011), is a parody of The Legend of Zelda title screen. The author states that it is fitting, since he was introduced to fantasy through the first The Legend of Zelda game.[189] Link's hat is referenced in the book as a possible piece of equipment for the main character, Remy, who rejects it on the grounds that it would make him look kind of like "a big green bean." He then brushes off a response that one of the world's greatest warriors wore a similar cap.
In parodies and pranks
"Child Fearing", an episode of The Powerpuff Girls, features the Mayor of Townsville playing a spoof of Ocarina of Time.[190]
In 2008, IGN.com made a fanfilm trailer based on The Legend of Zelda as an April Fools' Day prank.[191]
The Legend of Neil is a web-video series that aired on Comedy Central, spoofing the original The Legend of Zelda game.[192]
In television
In episode six "Shawn, Interrupted" in season six of Psych, young Shawn remarks to his father that he is going upstairs to play Zelda.[193]
In an episode of Jeopardy! which aired on July 12, 2013, the title of the original game was the correct response to the clue in Final Jeopardy. The clue was a reference to Princess Zelda being named after Zelda Fitzgerald: "The title princess of this game, which launched a best-selling franchise, was named for F. Scott Fitzgerald's wife".
In an episode of The Goldbergs, Adam almost completed The Legend of Zelda, after much effort and left the room to get his camera. But, his brother unknowingly continued and finished the game, to Adam's anger. At the end of the episode, his brother makes it up to him by giving him a new copy of Zelda II: The Adventure of Link and offered to play it together.
In The Amazing World of Gumball they make three references. The first reference takes place in The Promise when Gumball gets a game called The Tales of Zelmore, supposedly based on The Legend of Zelda. The second reference takes place in The Promise when he opens the game it makes the Zelda treasure chest sound. The third reference takes place in The Treasure when the light hits the chimney, they play the Zelda secret sound.
Video game creators
Ōkami director Hideki Kamiya states that he has been influenced by The Legend of Zelda series in developing the title, citing The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past as his favorite game of all time.[194]
The developers of the game Dark Sector have stated they have been heavily influenced by The Legend of Zelda series, and that the structure of the game is much like a Zelda game.[195]
Fable series creator Peter Molyneux stated that Twilight Princess is one of his favorite games. "I just feel it's jaw-dropping and its use of the hardware was brilliant. And I've played that game through several times," he said to TechRadar.[196]
Other media[edit]

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Main article: List of The Legend of Zelda media
TV series[edit]
Main article: The Legend of Zelda (TV series)
A 13-episode American animated TV series, adapted by DiC and distributed by Viacom Enterprises, aired in 1989. The animated Zelda shorts were broadcast each Friday, instead of the usual Super Mario Bros. cartoon which was aired during the rest of the week. The series loosely follows the two NES Zelda games (the original The Legend of Zelda and The Adventure of Link), mixing settings and characters from those games with original creations. The show's older incarnations of both Link and Zelda appear in various episodes of Captain N: The Game Master during its second season.

Print media[edit]
Valiant Comics released a short series of comics featuring characters and settings from the Zelda cartoon as part of their Nintendo Comics System line. Manga adaptations of many entries in the series, including A Link to the Past, Ocarina of Time, Majora's Mask, Oracle of Seasons and Oracle of Ages, Four Swords Adventures, The Minish Cap, and Phantom Hourglass, have been produced under license from Nintendo, mostly in Japan. These cartoons are usually not involved with the chronology of the actual games.[clarification needed]

A number of official books, novels, and gamebooks have been released based on the series as well. The earliest was Moblin's Magic Spear, published in 1989 by Western Publishing under their Golden Books Family Entertainment division and written by Jack C. Harris. It took place sometime during the first game. Two gamebooks were published as part of the Nintendo Adventure Books series by Archway, both of which were written by Matt Wayne. The first was The Crystal Trap (which focuses more on Zelda) and the second was The Shadow Prince. Both were released in 1992. A novel based on Ocarina of Time was released in 1999, written by Jason R. Rich and published by Sybex Inc. under their Pathways to Adventure series. Another two gamebooks were released as part of the You Decide on the Adventure series published by Scholastic. The first book was based on Oracle of Seasons and released in 2001 and the second was based on Oracle of Ages released in 2002. Both were written by Craig Wessel. In 2006, Scholastic released a novel as part of their Nintendo Heroes series titled Link and the Portal of Doom. It was written by Tracey West and was set shortly after the events of Ocarina of Time.

In 2011, to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the series, an art book was published exclusively in Japan under the name Hyrule Historia by Shogakukan. It contains concept art from the series's conception to the release of Skyward Sword in 2011 and multiple essays about the production of the games, as well as an overarching timeline of the series. It also includes a prequel manga to Skyward Sword by Zelda manga duo Akira Himekawa. The book received an international release by publisher Dark Horse Comics on January 29, 2013;[197] it took the number one spot on Amazon's sales chart, taking the spot away from E. L. James's 50 Shades of Grey trilogy.[198] Dark Horse will release The Legend of Zelda: Art & Artifacts, a follow-up art book to Hyrule Historia containing additional artwork and interviews, in February 2017.[199]

Music[edit]
Taking place in Cologne, Germany, on September 23, 2010, the video game music concert Symphonic Legends focused on music from Nintendo and, among others, featured titles such as The Legend of Zelda. Following an intermission, the second half of the concert was entirely dedicated to an expansive symphonic poem dedicated to the series. The 35 minute epic tells the story of Link's evolution from child to hero.[200][201]

To celebrate the 25th anniversary of the series in 2011, Nintendo commissioned an original symphony, The Legend of Zelda: Symphony of the Goddesses. The show was originally performed in the fall of 2011 in Los Angeles and consists of live performances of much of the music from the series.[202] It has since been scheduled for 18 shows so far throughout the United States and Canada.[202][203] Nintendo released a CD titled The Legend of Zelda 25th Anniversary Special Orchestra CD. Featuring eight tracks from live performances of the symphony, the CD is included alongside the special edition of The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword for the Wii.

Violinist Lindsey Stirling released a single called "Zelda Medley" in 2011, along with a popular YouTube video in which she is dressed as Link.[204]

Potential films[edit]
In 2007, Imagi Animation Studios, who provided the animation for TMNT and Astro Boy, created a pitch reel for a computer-animated The Legend of Zelda movie. Nintendo did not take the studio up on their offer due to the failure of the live-action movie adaption of Super Mario Bros.[205]

In 2013, Aonuma stated that, if development of a film were to move forward, the company would want to use the opportunity to embrace audience interaction in some capacity.[206][207]

Monopoly[edit]
The Legend of Zelda-themed Monopoly board game was released in the United States on September 15, 2014.______________________________________________________________
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