Sheet music

"Riu, Riu, Chiu" a Spanish Christmas Carol for String Quartet
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"Riu, Riu, Chiu" a Spanish Christmas Carol for String Quartet

4 parts1 page01:334 years ago4,046 views
Violin(2), Guitar, Cello
"Riu, Riu, Chiu" is a 16th Century Spanish villancico by an anonymous composer. The villancico is attributed by some sources to Mateo Flecha the Elder, who died in 1553. The villancico is verse, set to popular dance rhythms, depicting pastoral Nativity scenes with a country flavor (animals and shepherds).

It was written in so-called villancico style, which became a popular form for songs in post-Renaissance Spain. Such songs are in ternary form, with a text expressing some aspect of Christian principles or beliefs.

"Riu, Riu, Chiu" became one of the more widely known such works in its time. The author of this carol is generally thought to be anonymous, but its text, possibly originally written in Portuguese, has been attributed by some to Mateo Flecha (1481-1553). The melody to Riu, riu, chiu probably dates to the fifteenth century or earlier. The words in the title are vocalizations of the sounds made by a nightingale. The main theme is lively and rhythmic and has an instant appeal, lingering in the mind long after one or two hearings. It exudes folk-ish color. One hears a mixture of Renaissance-era elegance here with a sort of peasant-like festivity. Its text speaks of the roles of the Blessed Mother and the Redeemer.

This piece was popularized by the Monkees when they performed it acapella for their TV Christmas special in 1967: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ko94b3I0X0Y

Although originally intended to be sung by a lone male voice, with the main choir singing the chorus, I created this arrangement for String Quartet (2 Violins, Viola & Cello).
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This concerns one specific score by @Mike Magatagan namely the score https://musescore.com/mike_magatagan/scores/3004231If you click "Download" and choose "PDF including Parts"  the returned document is not a PDF but a "Not Found" error in XML format such as:  <Error><Code>NoSuchKey</Code><Message>The specified key does not exist.</Message><Key>3004231/8628087/18f138fc27/general-parts/score-parts.pdf</Key><RequestId>7C02B5365F83A247</RequestId><HostId>++UrE4WzPLQL6n4nqY64Q5aoi88wzvJjJqfSUqDiw2DSzJYIpfHzp0IE6RMQiDFkoGyv5AujhOA=</HostId></Error> All other export formats work fine.As a test I've downloaded that score in mscz format, opened it up with musescore 2.3.2 and used "Save online" to save it privately into my account (private url https://musescore.com/jeetee/scores/5304581 ). From there I can download the PDF with parts without issues.Mike already tried to "update" his score by resaving the score to his account; we were hoping this would force the musescore server to regenerate this PDF. Alas this seems to not work.Can someone on your end ( @Ximich or @abruhanov probably) debug this and/or force the server to generate that file?Thanks!

"Joy to the World" Duet for Piano and Organ

2 parts6 pages01:477 years ago4,005 views
A piano and organ duet arranged for the Sierra Vista United Methodist Church (SVUMC) from the United Methodist Church Hymnal #246. "Joy to the World" was adapted and arranged to the English hymn writer Isaac Watts' lyrics by Lowell Mason in 1839 from an older melody which was then believed to have originated from Handel, not least because the theme of the refrain (And heaven and nature sing...) appears in the orchestra opening and accompaniment of the recitative Comfort ye from Handel's Messiah, and the first four notes match the beginning of the choruses Lift up your heads and Glory to God from the same oratorio. However, Handel did not compose the entire tune. The name "Antioch" is generally used for the tune. This duet is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"Gymnopédie #2" for Piano

1 part4 pages02:427 years ago3,994 views
Erik Satie's Gymnopédie #2. Satie's Gymnopedies are what many consider to be the groundwork for today's ambient music; it's as ignorable as it is interesting (although, I find it hard to ignore such great music). These three beautiful pieces for solo piano are calming, reflective, ethereal, relaxing, soothing, and elegant.

Gymnopedie No. 2, although sharing the same short-long accompaniment in the left hand, the mood of this piece is entirely different from No. 1 and 3. Its lack of a commitment to a steady key leads the melody on a nebulous path wandering aimlessly through a series of chords.

See also: #1 (http://musescore.com/user/13216/scores/23966) & #3 (http://musescore.com/user/13216/scores/38026)

"Sound the Trumpet" (Z. 323) for Trumpets & Piano

3 parts3 pages02:525 years ago3,994 views
Trumpet(2), Piano
Come Ye Sons of Art, Z.323, also known as Ode for Queen Mary's birthday, is a musical ode written by Henry Purcell in 1694 in honor of the birthday of Queen Mary II of England. The text is often attributed to Nahum Tate.

Purcell begins the ode with a symphony or overture consisting of three movements: a largo followed by a fugal canzona and an adagio. Purcell later rewrote the opening symphony and incorporated into his opera The Indian Queen. The opening chorus is on the words "Come, Ye sons of Art," and serves as the introduction to the text. For the countertenor duet Sound the Trumpet, instead of using actual trumpets, Purcell choose to incorporate a two-bar modulating ground bass as the singers imitate the sound of trumpets. The day that such a blessing gave is intended to be a prayer for the day be of jubilation. This joy is displayed in the rest of the composition.

"The earliest surviving complete source is a manuscript score signed by one ‘Rob[er]t Pindar’, and dated 1765—some seventy years after Purcell’s death."[4] A new performance edition was published by Stainer & Bell in 2010, edited by Rebecca Herissone. Comparisons of existing manuscript or autograph scores led to the removal of eighteenth-century "enhancement". Dr. Herissone states that Purcell did not incorporate music from The Indian Queen into Come Ye Sons of Art, but that the editor (Robert Pinder) of the only surviving published edition of the work made drastic changes, including incorporating music from several of Purcell's previous theater works. This new edition is based on a comparison of Come Ye Sons of Art with manuscripts of other Odes written by Purcell showing exactly the same instrumental and editorial changes made by Pindar.

Herissone also points out that the "opening solo quite clearly begins ‘Come, ye sons of arts’, in the plural, not ‘Come, ye sons of art’ as in Pindar’s score, so the decision has been taken in the edition to follow the text as given in Purcell’s autograph." It appears the original title was 'Come, ye sons of arts.' The full article, along with a complete list of changes made by Pindar, is available in the 2010 publication by Stainer & Bell.

As the favorite composer of King William III of England, Purcell was given the task of composing odes for the birthday of Queen Mary. Come, Ye Sons of Art, written for performance in April 1694, was the sixth and final ode: Queen Mary died at the end of that year.

Although originally written for Voices (2) and Orchestra, I Arranged this piece for Trumpets (2) and Piano.

"Romanian Folk Dances" (No's 2 & 3) for Piano

1 part2 pages01:235 years ago3,973 views
Piano
Béla Viktor János Bartók (1881 – 1945) was a Hungarian composer and pianist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers (Gillies 2001). Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of ethnomusicology.

Romanian Folk Dances, Sz. 56, BB 68 is a suite of six short piano pieces composed by Béla Bartók in 1915. He later orchestrated it for small ensemble in 1917 as Sz. 68, BB 76.

It is based on seven Romanian tunes from Transylvania, originally played on fiddle or shepherd's flute. The original name for the piece was titled Romanian Folk Dances from Hungary but was later changed by Bartók when Transylvania joined Romania in 1918. It is nowadays available in the 1971 edition which is written with key signatures although Bartok rarely ever wrote key signatures.

The second movement is a typical dance from Romania called "Brâul" (Peasant Costume), for which traditionally a sash or a waistband was used. This melody came from Igriș, in the Banat region.

The third dance "Der Stampfer" (Standing Still) comes also from Igriş, but its theme is much darker and its melody recreates Middle Eastern instruments, such as the flute.

This piece is composed entirely for solo Acoustic Piano.
"Spirit of God, Unseen as the Wind" for Choir (SA/TB) & Organ
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"Spirit of God, Unseen as the Wind" for Choir (SA/TB) & Organ

2 parts4 pages01:526 years ago3,957 views
‘Spirit Of God, Unseen as the Wind’ is sung to the tune of the traditional Scottish folk tune: the ‘Skye Boat Song’. It has the advantage of being singable right from the beginning, particularly with children and with elders, who often are slower to embrace new songs. As a folk tune, the music lends itself to a variety of musical styles from organ to ensemble.

The song references the union between the work of the Holy Spirit and the Bible. One could quibble about how ‘God’s voice is heard’ in Scripture, but it’s a vast improvement on the idea that the Spirit reveals God’s Word and will without any reference to the Bible at all. The structure is unusual in that it follows a chorus/verse/chorus/verse/chorus format.

The lyrics were penned by Margaret Old using "The Skye Boat Song" (which can also be heard at: http://musescore.com/mike_magatagan/the-skye-boat-song-for-harp--flutes as well as http://musescore.com/mike_magatagan/spirit-of-god-unseen-as-the-wind-for-childrens-choir).

I created this arrangement for the Sierra Vista United Methodist Church (SVUMC) and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"Bourrée" (BWV 996) for Flute & Bass Clarinet

2 parts1 page01:526 years ago3,944 views
Bourrée in E minor is a popular lute piece, the fifth movement from Suite in E minor for Lute, BWV 996 (BC L166) written by Johann Sebastian Bach. This piece is arguably one of the most famous pieces among guitarists.

A bourrée was a type of dance that originated in France with quick duple meter and an upbeat. Though the bourrée was popular as a social dance and shown in theatrical ballets during the reign of Louis XIV of France, the Bourrée in E minor was not intended for dancing. Nonetheless, some of the elements of the dance are incorporated in the piece. Bach wrote his lute pieces in a traditional score rather than in lute tablature, and some believe that Bach played his lute pieces on the keyboard. No original script of the Suite in E minor for Lute by Bach is known to exist. However, in the collection of one of Bach's pupils, Johann Ludwig Krebs, there is one piece ("Praeludio - con la Suite da Gio: Bast. Bach") that has written "aufs Lauten Werck" ("for the lute-harpsichord") in unidentified handwriting. Some argue that despite this reference, the piece was meant to be played on the lute as demonstrated by the texture. Others argue that since the piece was written in E minor, it would be incompatible with the baroque lute which was tuned to D minor. Nevertheless, it may be played with other string instruments, such as the guitar, mandola or mandocello, and keyboard instruments, and it is especially well-known among guitarists. The tempo of the piece should be fairly quick and smooth, since it was written to be a dance. It also demonstrates counterpoint, as the two voices move independently of one another. Furthermore, the Bourrée in E minor demonstrates binary form.

Although originally written for Lute, I created this arrangement for Flute and Bass Clarinet and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen" for Saxophone Quartet

4 parts2 pages01:176 years ago3,877 views
"God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen", also known as "God Rest Ye Merry, Gentlemen", is an English traditional Christmas carol. The melody is in the minor mode. It was published by William B. Sandys in 1833, although the author is unknown.

Like so many early Christmas songs, the carol was written as a direct reaction to the church music of the 15th century. However, in the earliest known publication of the carol, on a c. 1760 broadsheet, it is described as a "new Christmas carol", suggesting its origin is actually in the mid-18th century. It appeared again among "new carols for Christmas" in another 18th century source, a chapbook believed to be printed between 1780 and 1800.

It is referred to in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, 1843: "...at the first sound of — 'God bless you, merry gentlemen! May nothing you dismay!'— Scrooge seized the ruler with such energy of action that the singer fled in terror, leaving the keyhole to the fog and even more congenial frost."

I created this arrangement for Saxophone Quartet (Soprano, Alto, Tenor & Baritone) as a variation on a simple theme. I encourage others to elaborate on this theme as well and freely post copies of your variations!

This piece is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"Ave Maria" for Flute & Piano

2 parts1 page03:205 years ago3,877 views
The Hail Mary, also commonly called the Ave Maria (Latin) or Angelic Salutation, is a traditional Christian prayer asking for the intercession of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. In Roman Catholicism, the prayer forms the basis of the Rosary and the Angelus prayers. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, a similar prayer is used in formal liturgies, both in Greek and in translations. It is also used by many other groups within the Catholic tradition of Christianity including Anglicans, Independent Catholics, and Old Catholics. Some Protestant denominations, such as Lutherans, also make use of a form of the prayer.

Based on the greeting of the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary in the Gospel of Luke, the prayer takes different forms in various traditions. It has often been set to music, although the most famous musical expression of the words Ave Maria by Schubert does not actually contain the Hail Mary prayer.

Although this traditional German Carol was originally written for Chorus (SATB), I created a flute part from my eralier work (http://musescore.com/mike_magatagan/scores/133703) and arranged it for Flute & Piano and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).
"Fantaisie-Impromptu" (Opus 66) for Flute & Harp
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"Fantaisie-Impromptu" (Opus 66) for Flute & Harp

2 parts13 pages04:416 years ago3,866 views
Flute, Harp
Frédéric Chopin's Fantaisie-Impromptu in C-sharp minor (Opus 66), is a solo piano composition and one of his best-known pieces. It was composed in 1834 and dedicated to Julian Fontana, who published the piece in spite of Chopin's request not to do so.

In the original pioan version, the piece uses many cross-rhythms (the right hand plays sixteenth notes against the left hand playing triplets) and a ceaselessly moving note figuration and is in cut time (2/2). It concludes in an ambiguous fantasy-like ending, in a quiet and mysterious way, playing the first few notes of the moderato section theme, while continuing with the sixteenth notes (semiquavers). The piece resolves and gently ends on a C-sharp major rolled chord.

Although originally composed for solo Piano, I adapted his work for flute and Concert (Pedal) Harp.

"The Ants Go Marching" for Steel Orchestra

6 parts5 pages01:124 years ago3,848 views
Percussion(6)
"The Ants Go Marching One by One" "When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again") is a popular song of the American Civil War that expressed people's longing for the return of their friends and relatives who were fighting in the war.

The lyrics to When Johnny Comes Marching Home were written by the Irish-American bandleader Patrick Gilmore during the American Civil War. Its first sheet music publication was deposited in the Library of Congress on September 26, 1863, with words and music credited to "Louis Lambert"; copyright was retained by the publisher, Henry Tolman & Co., of Boston. Why Gilmore chose to publish under a pseudonym is not clear, but popular composers of the period often employed pseudonyms to add a touch of romantic mystery to their compositions. Gilmore is said to have written the song for his sister Annie as she prayed for the safe return of her fiancé, Union Light Artillery Captain John O'Rourke, from the Civil War, although it is not clear if the engagement already existed in 1863 and the two were not married until 1875.

Gilmore later acknowledged that the music was not original but was, as he put it in an 1883 article in the Musical Herald, "a musical waif which I happened to hear somebody humming in the early days of the rebellion, and taking a fancy to it, wrote it down, dressed it up, gave it a name, and rhymed it into usefulness for a special purpose suited to the times."

The melody was previously published around July 1, 1863, as the music to the Civil War drinking song Johnny Fill Up the Bowl. A color-illustrated, undated slip of Gilmore's lyrics, printed by his own Boston publisher, actually states that When Johnny Comes Marching Home should be sung to the tune of Johnny Fill Up the Bowl. The original sheet music for Johnny Fill Up the Bowl states that the music was arranged (not composed) by J. Durnal. There is a melodic resemblance of the tune to that of John Anderson, My Jo (to which Robert Burns wrote lyrics to fit a pre-existing tune dating from about 1630 or earlier), and some have suggested a connection to the seventeenth-century ballad The Three Ravens.

When Johnny Comes Marching Home is also sung to the same tune as Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye and is frequently thought to have been a rewriting of that song. However, Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye was not published until 1867, and it originally had a different melody.

I created this arrangement for my friend and Pastor Julian J. Champion of the West Point School of Music located in Chicago IL. It has a single purpose for making music accessible to inner-city and disadvantaged youth. They are a struggling organization with a wonderful purpose. This arrangement is created for Steel Orchestra (Lead Pan), Double Lead, Alto Pan, Cello Pan & Bass Pan) Steel Drums & Percussion (Bass Drum, Snare Drum and High Hat).
"Funeral March of a Marionette" for Clarinet Quartet
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"Funeral March of a Marionette" for Clarinet Quartet

4 parts6 pages04:265 years ago3,844 views
Clarinet(4)
Charles Gounod was born in Paris, the son of a pianist mother and an artist father. His mother was his first piano teacher. Under her tutelage, Gounod first showed his musical talents. He entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied under Fromental Halévy and Pierre Zimmermann.

Gounod wrote "Funeral march of a marionette" as a light-hearted piece of musical grotesquerie, a mock funeral procession with a jaunty beat and a carefree tune over a humorously not-slow-enough funeral march. The music in the beginning is supposed to tell the listener that two of the members of the Marionette troupe have had a duel and one of them has been killed. A party of pallbearers is organized and the procession sets out for the cemetery in march time. The music soon takes on a more cheerful spirit, for some of the troupe, wearied with the march, seek consolation at a wayside inn, where they refresh themselves and also descant upon the many virtues of their late companion. At last they get into place again and the procession enters the cemetery to the march rhythm -- the whole closing with the bars intended to reflect upon the briefness and weariness of life, even for marionettes.

The "Funeral March of a Marionette", received a new and unexpected lease of life from 1955 when it was first used as the theme for the television series Alfred Hitchcock Presents. The "Funeral March of a Marionette," slight as it is, has never lost its charm. It was originally written as one of the movements of a Suite Burlesque, which was never completed.

At the request of a user, I re-worked the Wind Quintet arrangement for an upcoming amateur Clarinet Quartet Halloween concert.

Although originally written for Piano, I created this arrangement for the IT Chamber Group Clarinet Quartet (Williamsport, PA see: http://www.facebook.com/ITChamberGroup?__user=100005850937577&soft=side-area) and It is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).
"Pavane" (Opus 50) for Viola & Piano
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"Pavane" (Opus 50) for Viola & Piano

2 parts6 pages054 years ago3,839 views
Viola, Piano
The "Pavane" in F# minor, Op. 50, is a composition by the French composer Gabriel Fauré, written in 1887. It was originally a piano piece, but is better known in Fauré's version for orchestra and optional chorus. Obtaining its rhythm from the slow processional Spanish court dance of the same name, the Pavane ebbs and flows from a series of harmonic and melodic climaxes, conjuring a cool, somewhat haunting, Belle Époque elegance.

The original version of the Pavane was written for piano in the late 1880s. The composer described it as "elegant, but not otherwise important." Fauré intended it to be played more briskly than it has generally come to be performed in its more familiar orchestral guise.

Since its premiere in 1888, Gabriel Fauré 's Pavane Op. 50 has been an enormously popular piece of classical music. Its beautiful main melody, evocative harmonies and effective orchestration create a very stirring and infectious work, which is why it has become such a favourite with audiences and is so frequently heard time and time again. It was used as the theme to the 1998 World Cup, and has also been the basis for various popular music songs, such as Charlotte Church's "Dream a Dream".

Although originally written for Piano and later Orchestra, I arranged his work for Viola & Acoustic Piano.
Andante from the Trumpet Concerto (Hob.VIIe:1 Mvt. 2) for Trumpet & Piano
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Andante from the Trumpet Concerto (Hob.VIIe:1 Mvt. 2) for Trumpet & Piano

2 parts3 pages02:305 years ago3,839 views
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) is the composer who, more than any other, epitomizes the aims and achievements of the Classical era. Perhaps his most important achievement was that he developed and evolved in countless subtle ways the most influential structural principle in the history of music: his perfection of the set of expectations known as sonata form made an epochal impact. In hundreds of instrumental sonatas, string quartets, and symphonies, Haydn both broke new ground and provided durable models; indeed, he was among the creators of these fundamental genres of classical music. His influence upon later composers is immeasurable; Haydn's most illustrious pupil, Beethoven, was the direct beneficiary of the elder master's musical imagination, and Haydn's shadow lurks within (and sometimes looms over) the music of composers like Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Brahms.

A favorite of the trumpet repertoire and possibly Haydn's most popular concerto, this work was composed in 1796 while the composer was working on the Creation. In the final years of his career Haydn seemed to prefer large choral works to instrumental pieces, but he was intrigued by a request for a concerto from Anton Weidinger, the trumpeter in the Vienna Court Orchestra. The valveless trumpets of the time could play only notes derived from a fundamental pitch and its related harmonic series, and so trumpet music tended to be melodically limited. Weidinger invented a keyed trumpet along the lines of a woodwind instrument; with drilled holes in the body of the instrument, the player could easily raise the pitch in half-tone steps, enabling them to play chromatic passages. The modern trumpet has been greatly refined since Weidinger's time, but the principle remains the same. Weidinger did not perform the Concerto in public until 1800. Surviving in a single manuscript copy, this extraordinary work wasn't performed again until 1929.

Splendidly orchestrated, Haydn's concerto fully exploits the trumpet's new technical abilities. The opening Allegro is festive and radiant, with the orchestra introducing the main themes before they're taken up by the soloist. There's a motif that initially rises, subsequently allowing the trumpet to show off its new stock of notes in the low register. This motif evolves into a fanfare-like subject, which the soloist enriches with effective trills and other ornamentation. The development section requires the trumpeter to play in different keys, which would have been impossible on a valveless trumpet. Opening with a lovely, expansive melody in siciliano style, the second movement reveals the full lyrical and expressive potential of the new trumpet. In addition, this movement, which exemplifies the consummate melodic artistry of Haydn's late works, showcases the instrument's ability to easily modulate from key to key. Written in a sonata rondo form, the concluding Allegro begins with an angular, fanfare-like theme, continuing with material which calls upon the soloist's dexterity in handling trills and other technical effects. Following a concise, brief development section which mainly negotiates primary thematic material, a recapitulation leads the trumpeter to a higher, brighter tessitura. A spirited combination of technical brilliance and musical élan, the third movement ends with a gleaming, celebratory coda.

Although originally written for Orchestra with solo Bb Trumpet, this simplified arrangement pairs the Trumpet with Acoustic Piano and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"Sailor's Hornpipe" for Flute Trio

3 parts3 pages02:025 years ago3,810 views
The Sailor's Hornpipe (also known as The College Hornpipe and Jack's the Lad) is a traditional hornpipe melody.

The hornpipe is any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and elsewhere from the late 17th century until the present day. It is said that hornpipe as a dance began around the 16th century on English sailing vessels. Movements were those familiar to sailors of that time: "looking out to sea" with the right hand to the forehead, then the left, lurching as in heavy weather, and giving the occasional rhythmic tug to their breeches both fore and aft.

The usual tune for this dance was first printed as the "College Hornpipe" in 1797 or 1798 by J. Dale of London. It was found in manuscript collections before then – for instance the fine syncopated version in the William Vickers manuscript, written on Tyneside, dated 1770. The dance imitates the life of a sailor and their duties aboard ship. Due to the small space that the dance required, and no need for a partner, the dance was popular on-board ship.

Accompaniment may have been the music of a tin whistle or, from the 19th century, a squeezebox. Samuel Pepys referred to it in his diary as "The Jig of the Ship" and Captain Cook, who took a piper on at least one voyage, is noted to have ordered his men to dance the hornpipe in order to keep them in good health. The dance on-ship became less common when fiddlers ceased to be included in ships' crew members.


Although likely originally written for folk instruments, I created this arrangement for Flute Trio (Flutes (2) or Piccolo/Flute & Alto Flute) and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

Gavotte in F Major for Violin & Viola

2 parts3 pages03:053 years ago3,797 views
Violin, Viola
Giovanni Battista Martini (1706 – 1784), also known as Padre Martini, was an Italian musician.

Grandly and misleadingly called "one of the most famous figures in eighteenth century music" by over-specialized musicologists, Giovanni Battista Martini was an important personality in the narrow confines of Italian music and counterpoint pedagogy. Described as both affable and arrogant, Martini was a supportive and much sought-after teacher; his students included the young Mozart and J.C. Bach.

Martini enjoyed substantial early musical training, but at age 15 he decided he wanted to become a monk and was sent to a monastery. This residency lasted about a year; in late 1722 he returned to his native Bologna to become an organist at the church of St. Francesco. In 1725 he became that church's maestro di cappella, a position he would hold until near the end of his long life. He was ordained a priest in 1729.

Padre Martini's first published works appeared in 1734, a collection called Litaniae atque antiphonae finales Beatae Virginis Mariae; after this liturgical beginning, Martini would eventually publish three collections of secular music.

Among his honors were election to the Academy of the Bologna Institute of Science in 1758, the Bologna Philharmonic Academy (in the same year), and the Arcadian Academy in Rome in 1776. He was offered jobs at the Vatican and perhaps in Padua, but Martini preferred his employment in Bologna; indeed, his trips out of town were few and far between.

He was a hard worker and easily likable, inspiring great affection in personalities as different as Mozart and Charles Burney. Yet he was also in many respects an adamant musical reactionary, resisting French innovations in music theory and the progressive tendencies of even his fellow-countryman Tartini (with whom he nonetheless remained on cordial terms). His fees from teaching counterpoint and singing enabled him to amass a huge personal music library (perhaps 17,000 volumes by 1770), as well as a collection of 300 portraits of musicians; eventually, getting one's portrait into Martini's hands was equivalent to a modern Hollywood celebrity having "arrived" by getting a set of footprints onto the Walk of Fame.

Martini wrote extensively on ancient Greek music and plainchant (which he considered to be a particularly expressive form of music), and published a volume of excerpts for the teaching of advanced counterpoint. His own music, however, was largely homophonic, skewed to high voices. A major exception to this tendency was his 1742 Sonate d'intavolatura, which employed a rich counterpoint suggesting a familiarity with Bach.

Although originally written for Viol a de Gamba and Continuo, I created this arrangement for Violin & Viola.

Aria: "Schafe können sicher weiden" (Sheep May Safely Graze: BWV 208 No 9) for String Quartet

4 parts4 pages06:243 years ago3,796 views
Violin(2), Viola, Cello
Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd (The lively hunt is all my heart's desire), BWV 208, also known as the Hunting Cantata, is a secular cantata composed in 1713 by Johann Sebastian Bach for the 31st birthday of Duke Christian of Saxe-Weissenfels on 23 February 1713. The aria "Schafe können sicher weiden" ("Sheep May Safely Graze"), is the most familiar part of this cantata.

It is Bach's earliest surviving secular cantata, composed while he was employed as court organist in Weimar. The work may have been intended as a gift from Bach's employer, William Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, for his neighbouring ruler, Duke Christian, who was a keen hunter.

Bach is known to have stayed in Weißenfels in 1713 for the birthday celebrations. He went on to earn more commissions from Saxe-Weissenfels, and in 1729, Bach was appointed Royal Kapellmeister, but this position as court composer did not require residence at court. The text is by Salomon Franck, the Weimar court poet, who published it in Geist- und Weltlicher Poesien Zweyter Theil (Jena, 1716). As was common at the time, Franck's flattering text draws on mythological references. Franck also followed convention in associating good government with the hunt: the text praises Duke Christian as a wise ruler as well as a keen hunter. In reality, the Duke was to prove a spendthrift whose habits resulted in the financial collapse of his duchy.

Bach appears to have revived the work a few years after its original performance, this time in honour of Duke Ernst-August, the co-ruler of Saxe-Weimar, who was also a hunter. Bach often re-used music written for "one-off" occasions, but this cantata is unusual for the extent to which he recycled it. While he was living in Leipzig he arranged music from two arias for the church cantata Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt, BWV 68, composed in 1725. Also Bach appears to have re-arranged the music in 1740 for cantata BWV 208a. The score for this piece is now lost, but the text is an adaptation of the original cantata to honour the name day of Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.

here has been speculation that the cantata opened with a sinfonia (BWV 1046a), which has similar scoring to the cantata and is an early version of Brandenburg Concerto No. 1 in F major (BWV 1046). The sinfonia seems to be intended for more able horn players than required for the cantata, and may have been composed later, but it appears in some recorded versions of the cantata, for example those of Goodman and Suzuki.

Although originally scored for Horns, recorders, oboes, taille, bassoon, violins, viola, cello, violone, and continuo, I created this arrangement for String Quartet (2 Violins, Viola & Cello).