Sheet music

Partita in B Minor (BWV 1002) for Viola

1 part11 pages28:44a year ago523 views
Viola
Johann Sebastian Bach was better known as a virtuoso organist than as a composer in his day. His sacred music, organ and choral works, and other instrumental music had an enthusiasm and seeming freedom that concealed immense rigor. Bach's use of counterpoint was brilliant and innovative, and the immense complexities of his compositional style -- which often included religious and numerological symbols that seem to fit perfectly together in a profound puzzle of special codes -- still amaze musicians today. Many consider him the greatest composer of all time.

Of Bach's three partitas for solo violin, the first is the most old-fashioned in its choice of dance movements. The work is structurally unusual among Bach's sonatas and partitas for solo instruments in that it consists of four pairs of movements, the second of each pair offering a variation (or, employing the French term double) on the first. Another nod to older forms is the overall layout of the movements; the pairs fall into the slow-fast-slow-fast pattern of the church sonata or sonata da chiesa. To complicate matters, each double is much faster than the movement it varies. The work is technically challenging, generally more difficult than the third partita but not as tough as the second, the famous Chaconne of which is clotted with double and triple stops.

The opening Allemanda announces that it's not for beginners with an immediate series of double stops (which were easier to play in Bach's time than today, thanks to the convex Baroque bow). This is a typical example of the allemanda (or allemande), a slow, serious German dance in quadruple meter and binary form, its improvisational-seeming melodies refusing to conform to the expected phrases. Its "Double" is faster and in 2/2, following the same contours as the original melodies, but now filling them in with even runs of notes. The "Correnta" is the Italian version of the dance form known in French as courante: fairly fast, in 3/4, sawing up and down the scale. Its 'Double," marked Presto, again rolls all over the staff, but the notes now fly by almost as fast as possible. The mood becomes somber with the Sarabande, the only movement in this partita to receive the French version of its title. Indeed, unlike the common Italian model, this French Sarabande is slow (in 3/4 meter) and expressive, its second half almost entirely in double stops. Its "Double" switches to 9/8 and increases the tempo, but the mood remains questioning and unsettled; at least Bach now eases off the multiple stops. Finally comes a movement in Tempo di Borea (related to the bourée), fast and sharply accented in a meter marked 2/4 but really feeling more like 2/2; again, Bach employs multiple stops through most of this movement. Its "Double" is in 12/4, the shape of the original melody obscured by the fast, nonstop passagework.

Source: AllMusic (http://www.allmusic.com/composition/partita-for-solo-violin-no-1-in-b-minor-bwv-1002-mc0002390271).

Although originally written for Solo Violin. I created this Transcription of the Partita No. 1 in B Minor (BWV 1002) Transcribed to E Minor for Solo Viola

"O Lamm Gottes, Unschuldig" (BWV 401) for Flute & Piano

2 parts1 page01:386 years ago523 views
Compared to most other major composers, Johann Sebastian Bach's life and career were confined to a very limited geographical space. Born and raised in Thuringia, he never went farther north than Hamburg and Lübeck, or farther south than Carlsbad. In a similarly confined way, his east-west range stretched from Dresden (east) to Kassel (west). His complete geographical space can be found on a map derived from Christoph Wolff's great scholarly Bach study (Chr. Wolff, Bach, Essays on His Life and Music. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

"O Lamm Gottes, Unschuldig" (BWV 401: O Lamb of God, Most Holy) is an An amazing, trancelike choral work, based on a Lenten Chorale and utilizing a pervasive grief motive accompanying a canon at the fifth. It is taken from from the Vocal Works (other than Cantatas) of J. S. Bach. Written both in German and Dutch, the work translates to English as:

O Lamb of God all holy,
Who on the Cross didst sufer,
And patient still and lowly,
Thyself to scorn didst offer:
Our sins by Thee were taken,
Or hope had us forsaken:
Have mercy upon us, o Jesu.

Although originally written for Chorus (SATB), I created this arrangement for Flute & Piano and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).
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The underlying hyperlinks for the automatically-generated names (e.g., @Mike Magatagan") in posted comments/replies, contain invalid hyperlinks.For example: on a reply to an "Improving MuseScore.com" comment, the user name printed at the beginning of the comment contains an invalid reference (e.g., https://musescore.com/user/Mike%20Magatagan instead of the actual https://musescore.com/mike_magatagan )
This concerns one specific score by @Mike Magatagan namely the score https://musescore.com/mike_magatagan/scores/3004231If you click "Download" and choose "PDF including Parts"  the returned document is not a PDF but a "Not Found" error in XML format such as:  <Error><Code>NoSuchKey</Code><Message>The specified key does not exist.</Message><Key>3004231/8628087/18f138fc27/general-parts/score-parts.pdf</Key><RequestId>7C02B5365F83A247</RequestId><HostId>++UrE4WzPLQL6n4nqY64Q5aoi88wzvJjJqfSUqDiw2DSzJYIpfHzp0IE6RMQiDFkoGyv5AujhOA=</HostId></Error>All other export formats work fine.As a test I've downloaded that score in mscz format, opened it up with musescore 2.3.2 and used "Save online" to save it privately into my account (private url https://musescore.com/jeetee/scores/5304581 ). From there I can download the PDF with parts without issues.Mike already tried to "update" his score by resaving the score to his account; we were hoping this would force the musescore server to regenerate this PDF. Alas this seems to not work.Can someone on your end ( @Ximich or @abruhanov probably) debug this and/or force the server to generate that file?Thanks!

Branle from "La Noce Champêtre" for Woodwind Quartet

4 parts2 pages01:575 years ago522 views
Jean Hotteterre (died 1720) was a composer and musician of the Hotteterre family in the court of Louis XIV of France. He and his brothers Jacques-Martin and Nicolas made many enhancements to the hautbois, creating an “indoor” version similar to the shawm. Jean and Michel Philidore created the oboe.

"La noce champêtre" (Country Wedding/ Pastoral Hymn) is a French Sonata and Trio (No. 6) ca. 1700 in 31 movements. This Branle (Branle: Gayment) is movement XVIII in the suite.

A branle (pronounced bran(ə)l) is a 16th-century French dance style which moves mainly from side to side, and is performed by couples in either a line or a circle. The word is derived from the French verb branler (to shake), possibly related to brander (to brandish). In Italy the branle became the brando, and in Spain the bran (Dolmetsch 1959). Brando alta regina by Cesare Negri demonstrates how widely the French and Italian dances had diverged by the beginning of the 17th century. The Branle seems to have travelled to Scotland and survived for some time as the brail, but in England it was rarely danced, and of thousands of lute pieces from England only 18 were called branle, though one called "courant" is known from continental sources as a branle.

Although originally written for chamber orchestra, I created this arrangement for Woodwind Quartet (Flute, Oboe, Bb Clarinet & Bassoon) and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"Ave Verum" for Viola & Harp

2 parts2 pages01:514 years ago522 views
Viola, Harp
Jacques-Nicolas (Jaak-Nicolaas) Lemmens (1823 -- 1881), was an organist and composer for his instrument. He was born at Zoerle-Parwijs, near Westerlo, Belgium, Lemmens took lessons from François-Joseph Fétis, who wanted to make him into a musician capable of renewing the organ-player's art in Belgium. Fétis sent him to Adolf Friedrich Hesse in Germany to learn Johann Sebastian Bach's tradition.

In 1847, Lemmens won the Paris Conservatoire's prestigious Prix de Rome with his Le roi Lear ("King Lear"). One year later he published his first work for organ: Dix improvisations dans le style sévère et chantant ("Ten improvisations in a strict and singing style"). In March 1849 he was appointed organ teacher at the Royal Brussels Conservatoire, aged only 26; and he trained numerous young musicians, including two eminent Frenchmen, Alexandre Guilmant and Charles-Marie Widor.

During 1852 he gave organ recitals in Saint Vincent de Paul, La Madeleine and Saint Eustache churches in Paris, where he stunned audiences with his technique. Particularly notable was his brilliant pedal-playing, which owed a good deal to his studies of Bach's music (at the time Bach's organ works were not at all well known in France). In 1857 he married the English soprano Helen Sherrington (1834--1906), who in the following decade emerged as a leading English concert and operatic singer. He died at Zemst, near Mechelen, Belgium.

Ave verum corpus is a short Eucharistic hymn that has been set to music by various composers. It dates from the 14th century and has been attributed to Pope Innocent VI. During the Middle Ages it was sung at the elevation of the host during the consecration. It was also used frequently during Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.

Although originally written for Voice (B) and Organ, I created this arrangement for Viola & Concert (Pedal) Harp.

Gigue from the English Suite No. 2 in A Minor (BWV 807 No. 6) for Violin & Viola

2 parts2 pages01:19a year ago522 views
Violin, Viola
The English Suites, BWV 806–811, are a set of six suites written by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach for harpsichord and generally thought to be the earliest of his 19 suites for keyboard, the others being the six French Suites, BWV 812–817, the six Partitas, BWV 825-830 and the Overture in the French style, BWV 831.

These six suites for keyboard are thought to be the earliest set that Bach composed. Originally, their date of composition was thought to have been between 1718 and 1720, but more recent research suggests that the composition was likely earlier, around 1715, while the composer was living in Weimar.

Bach's English Suites display less affinity with Baroque English keyboard style than do the French Suites to French Baroque keyboard style; the name "English" is thought to date back to a claim made by the 19th-century Bach biographer Johann Nikolaus Forkel that these works might have been composed for an English nobleman, but no evidence has emerged to substantiate this claim. It has also been suggested that the name is a tribute to Charles Dieupart, whose fame was greatest in England, and on whose Six Suittes de clavessin Bach's English Suites were in part based.

Surface characteristics of the English Suites strongly resemble those of Bach's French Suites and Partitas, particularly in the sequential dance-movement structural organization and treatment of ornamentation. These suites also resemble the Baroque French keyboard suite typified by the generation of composers including Jean-Henri d'Anglebert, and the dance-suite tradition of French lutenists that preceded it.

In the English Suites especially, Bach's affinity with French lute music is demonstrated by his inclusion of a prelude for each suite, departing from an earlier tradition of German derivations of French suite (those of Johann Jakob Froberger and Georg Boehm are examples), which saw a relatively strict progression of the dance movements (Allemande, Courante, Sarabande and Gigue) and which did not typically feature a Prelude. Unlike the unmeasured preludes of French lute or keyboard style, however, Bach's preludes in the English Suites are composed in strict meter.

Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Suites_(Bach)).

Although originally written for Harpsichord. I created this arrangement of the Gigue from the English Suite No. 2 in A Minor (BWV 807 No. 6) for Violin & Viola.

Aria: "Lobe den Herren, der deinen Stand sichtbar gesegnet" (BWV 137 No 4) for String Trio

3 parts3 pages04:423 years ago522 views
Violin, Viola, Cello
Lobe den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren (Praise the Lord, the mighty King of honor), BWV 137, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed the chorale cantata in Leipzig for the twelfth Sunday after Trinity and first performed it on 19 August 1725. It is based on the hymn by Joachim Neander (1680).

Bach composed the cantata for the Twelfth Sunday after Trinity. It forms part of a cycle of chorale cantatas which Bach composed in Leipzig over a period of two years 1724–25. In 1724, his second year in the city, Bach had composed chorale cantatas between the first Sunday after Trinity of 1724 and Palm Sunday, but for Easter had returned to cantatas on more varied texts, possibly because he lost his librettist. Later Bach composed again chorale cantatas to complete his second annual cycle. This cantata is one of the completing works. It is based entirely on the unchanged words on the hymn "Lobe den Herren, den mächtigen König der Ehren" (1680) by Joachim Neander.

The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, the ministry of the Spirit (2 Corinthians 3:4–11), and from the Gospel of Mark, the healing of a deaf mute man (Mark 7:31–37). Unlike most chorale cantatas of the second cycle, but similar to the early Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4, Bach left the chorale text unchanged, thus without a reference to the readings.

John Eliot Gardiner assumes, looking at the festive instrumentation and the general content of praise and thanksgiving, that the cantata was also performed that year to celebrate Ratswahl, the inauguration of the town council. Bach used in 1729 the setting of the final chorale, transposed to D major, to conclude the wedding cantata Herr Gott, Beherrscher aller Dinge, BWV 120a with the last two stanzas of the hymn.

As Alfred Dürr and Gardiner observed, the text as well as the chorale melody is present in all movements. The cantata is constructed in symmetry: the soprano carries the melody in the outer movements, in movement 2 it is sung by the alto, and in movement 4 played by the trumpet. In the central movement, the beginning of both the vocal and the instrumental theme are derived from it in the most intimate setting of the work. The melody in bar form has a Stollen of unusual five measures and reaches a climax at the beginning of the Abgesang, which Bach also stresses in a variety of means in the movements.

In the opening chorus the trumpets, oboes and strings play a concerto; the soprano sings the cantus firmus while the lower voices prepare the entries by imitation on the instrumental motifs. For the words "Kommet zu Hauf, Psalter und Harfen, wacht auf" (Come join the crowd, psaltery and harps, awake!), the setting is homophonic and accented.

In movement 2, a violin accompanies the embellished melody of the chorale. Bach included this movement in his Schübler Chorales, but on a text for Advent, "Kommst du nun, Jesu, vom Himmel herunter auf Erden".

In great contrast to C major and G major, the central duet is in E minor. Two obbligato oboes take part in the setting. In an unusual way, the first vocal section is repeated three times; only the words "In wieviel Not" (in how much suffering) are set differently in "grinding chromatic descent".

Movement 4 is in A minor, but the cantus firmus of the trumpet is nonetheless in C major, in "a battle for harmonic supremacy". In the final movement of his Christmas Oratorio Bach would later embed the chorale in doric mode in a concerto in D major. The independent vocal line "quotes" parts of the chorale melody several times. The words "Denke daran" (consider this) are accented to a different meter.

Bach set the closing chorale for four vocal parts and three independent trumpet parts, for an affirmative conclusion. Gardiner notes: "He knew exactly how best to use the resources of the ceremonial trumpet-led orchestra and choir of his day to convey unbridled joy and majesty."


Although originally scored for four soloists, soprano, alto, tenor and bass, a four-part choir, three trumpets, timpani, two oboes, two violins, viola, and basso continuo, I created this arrangement for String Trio (Violin, Viola & Cello).

"A Che Più Strali" for Brass Ensemble

4 parts3 pages025 years ago522 views
Cornelis Verdonck (1563 – 1625) was a Flemish composer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the last members of the Franco-Flemish school of polyphony, and was a notable composer of madrigals in a style that blended both Italian and native Netherlandish idioms.

Verdonck was born in Turnhout. From his earliest years, he was in the household of Cornelis Pruenen, senator and treasurer of Antwerp; in addition he was a choirboy at Antwerp Cathedral until about the age of 9. In 1572 he went to Spain to be part of the choir of Philip II in Madrid, where he stayed until his voice broke in early 1580, at which time he returned to the Netherlands to study in Antwerp with Séverin Cornet, and possibly with Hubert Waelrant as well. His earliest works, published along with those of Cornet, date from this period.

In 1584 Verdonck returned to Spain, once again singing in the choir of Philip II, staying there until 1598 or 1599, after which he again returned to Antwerp. Also in 1599 he participated in the elaborate entry procession of the newly-married Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella into Antwerp, writing a motet (Prome, novas) for the occasion: it was performed by a six-member boys' choir mounted on the back of an elephant, which rode along with the Archduke and Archduchess (accounts differ as to whether it was a real or artificial animal). It is the only known motet composed for performance on an elephant.

Although this Motet was originally written for Chorus (SATB), I created this arrangement for Brass Ensemble (Bb Trumpet or Flugelhorn, Eb Alto Horn, French Horn & F Tuba) and It is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

Menuets from the Fireworks Suite (HWV 351 No. 5) for String Quartet

4 parts1 page01:589 months ago522 views
Violin(2), Viola, Cello
Most music lovers have encountered Georg Friedrich Händel (1685 – 1759) through holiday-time renditions of the Messiah's "Hallelujah" chorus. And many of them know and love that oratorio on Christ's life, death, and resurrection, as well as a few other greatest hits like the orchestral Water Music and Royal Fireworks Music, and perhaps Judas Maccabeus or one of the other English oratorios. Yet his operas, for which he was widely known in his own time, are the province mainly of specialists in Baroque music, and the events of his life, even though they reflected some of the most important musical issues of the day, have never become as familiar as the careers of Bach or Mozart. Perhaps the single word that best describes his life and music is "cosmopolitan": he was a German composer, trained in Italy, who spent most of his life in England.

The War of Austrian Succession was brought to an end by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, signed in October 1748. Although England had been a somewhat reluctant participant and had gained little from the war, preparations for celebrations commenced the following month with the erection of a large wooden structure incorporating a triumphal arch in London's Green Park -- the framework for a large and impressive display of fireworks. Peace was formally declared in the following February, and Handel, who had then just completed two contrasting oratorios, Susanna and Solomon, was commissioned to provide music for the occasion. Obviously, such music would have to be both grand in scale and suitable for open-air performance -- this latter aspect, in practical terms, calling for a large contingent of wind and brass instruments. Handel originally intended to make use of no fewer than 16 each of trumpets and horns. However, he ran into trouble with the organizers, evidenced by a sequence of bad-tempered letters. Ultimately, he settled for something a little more "modest": 24 oboes, 12 bassoons (including a contrabassoon), nine each of trumpets and horns, three pairs of kettledrums, and an unspecified number of side drums.

Music for the Royal Fireworks consists of five movements, commencing with a suitably pompous and ceremonial Overture in the French style: a slow, dotted-rhythm introduction followed by a contrapuntal Allegro. The suite continues with a lively Bourée, a quieter movement entitled "La paix," the ebullient "La réjouissance," and a final Minuet. A second Minuet, in D minor, which seems to have been added later, was probably used by the composer as a trio section before a final triumphant return to the main Minuet in D major.

The rehearsal of Music for the Royal Fireworks in Vauxhall Gardens on April 21, 1749 takes a place as one of the best attended in the history of musical performance. A huge crowd, said to number in excess of 12,000, is reported to have turned up, blocking many surrounding streets and causing traffic chaos. The actual event was rather less successful; observers reported that in particular, many of the fireworks failed to impress. To make matters worse, the display set fire to one of the pavilions that formed part of the structure. A month later, the music was performed in the rather more peaceful surroundings of the Foundling Hospital. For this occasion Handel reverted to a traditional combination of strings and winds. This is the version in which the music, one of Handel's most popular works, is most often heard today.

Source: AllMusic (https://www.allmusic.com/composition/suite-for-keyboard-suite-de-piece-vol1-no6-in-f-sharp-minor-hwv-431-mc0002366400).

Although originally written for Keyboard, I created this Arrangement of the 2 Menuets from the Fireworks Suite (HWV 351 No. 5) for String Quartet (2 Violins, Viola & Cello).

Prelude: "In dir ist Freude" (BWV 615) for Brass Quartet

4 parts6 pages02:182 years ago521 views
Trumpet(2), French Horn, Tuba
The Orgelbüchlein ("Little Organ Book") BWV 599-644 is a collection of 46 chorale preludes for organ written by Johann Sebastian Bach. All but three of them were composed during the period 1708–1717, while Bach was court organist at the ducal court in Weimar. The remaining three, along with a short two-bar fragment, were added in 1726 or later, after Bach's appointment as cantor at the Thomasschule in Leipzig.

The collection was originally planned as a set of 164 chorale preludes spanning the whole liturgical year. The chorale preludes form the first of Bach's masterpieces for organ with a mature compositional style in marked contrast to his previous compositions for the instrument. Although each of them takes a known Lutheran chorale and adds a motivic accompaniment, Bach explored a wide diversity of forms in the Orgelbüchlein. Many of the chorale preludes are short and in four parts, requiring only a single keyboard and pedal, with an unadorned cantus firmus. Others involve two keyboards and pedal: these include several canons, four ornamental four-part preludes, with elaborately decorated chorale lines, and a single chorale prelude in trio sonata form. The Orgelbüchlein has a four-fold purpose: it is a collection of organ music for church services, a treatise on composition, a religious statement, and an organ-playing manual.

Short-short-short-long is the rhythm of the ultra short melodic fragment around which this chorale prelude is constructed. They are the four opening notes of an extremely cheerful New Year’s carol, which in turn is based on a sixteenth-century balletto by Gastoldi in triple time. This explains both the dance-like character of the piece and its tempo. The rhythmical motif keeps recurring on other notes in the hymn, which is why the words, too, keep almost completely to the rather breathless structure. But Bach sticks teasingly to these four opening notes, of which two are even the same note. It is only by degrees that we get to hear the whole melody, but even then the little motif keeps popping up. It is a joke that is well suited to the irrepressibly cheerful festoons that decorate the notes. It is supported in the bass by an ostinato with features reminiscent of a carillon. This, too, endorses the jubilant words – a hymn of praise to the coming of Christ.

Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orgelb%C3%BCchlein).

Although originally created for Organ, I created this Interpretation of Choral Prelude (BWV 615) "In dir ist Freude" (In you is joy) for Brass Quartet (Bb Trumpet, Flugelhorn, French Horn & Tuba).

Sinfonia No. 3 in D Major (BWV 789) for String Trio

3 parts2 pages01:422 years ago521 views
The Inventions and Sinfonias, BWV 772–801, also known as the Two- and Three-Part Inventions, are a collection of thirty short keyboard compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750): 15 inventions, which are two-part contrapuntal pieces, and 15 sinfonias, which are three-part contrapuntal pieces. They were originally written as musical exercises for his students.

Bach titled the collection: "Honest method, by which the amateurs of the keyboard – especially, however, those desirous of learning – are shown a clear way not only (1) to learn to play cleanly in two parts, but also, after further progress, (2) to handle three obligate parts correctly and well; and along with this not only to obtain good inventions (ideas) but to develop the same well; above all, however, to achieve a cantabile style in playing and at the same time acquire a strong foretaste of composition."

The two groups of pieces are both arranged in order of ascending key, each group covering eight major and seven minor keys and were composed in Köthen; the sinfonias, on the other hand, were probably not finished until the beginning of the Leipzig period.

Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventions_and_Sinfonias_(Bach)).

Although originally composed for Harpsichord, I created this arrangement of the Sinfonia No. 3 in D Major (BWV 789) for String Trio (Violin, Viola & Cello).
"Night on Bald Mountain" (IMM 43) for Small Orchestra
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"Night on Bald Mountain" (IMM 43) for Small Orchestra

16 parts76 pages09:574 months ago521 views
Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, English Horn, Bassoon, Trumpet(2), French Horn, Tuba, Timpani, Violin(2), Viola, Cello, Contrabass
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839 – 1881) was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five". He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period. He strove to achieve a uniquely Russian musical identity, often in deliberate defiance of the established conventions of Western music. Many of his works were inspired by Russian history, Russian folklore, and other national themes. Such works include the opera Boris Godunov, the orchestral tone poem Night on Bald Mountain and the piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition.

For many years Mussorgsky's works were mainly known in versions revised or completed by other composers. Many of his most important compositions have posthumously come into their own in their original forms, and some of the original scores are now also available. In a July 5, 1867 letter to Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, Modest Mussorgsky wrote "(I have) finished St. John's Night on Bald Mountain, a musical picture with the following program: (1) assembly of the witches, their chatter and gossip; (2) cortege of Satan; (3) unholy gratification of Satan; and (4) witches' sabbath." Mussorgsky proclaims "in form and character my composition is Russian and original. Its tone is hot and chaotic.... St. John's Night is something new and is bound to produce a satisfactory impression...."

The impression was not so satisfactory for Mily Balakirev, who rejected the work in 1869 from consideration for a Free School concert. Balakirev sent the manuscript back to Mussorgsky bearing handwritten marks such as the comment "Rubbish!" in the margins. Later, under the spell of Liszt's Totentanz, Mussorgsky considered refashioning the movement as a piano/orchestral work, but nothing came of this plan.

In May 1877, Mussorgsky drew up the scenario of his comic opera Sorochintsy Fair, proposing an extensive revision of the St. John's Night music as an Intermezzo opening the third act. Mussorgsky completed this part of the opera in 1880, retaining music from (1) and (3) of the original work, and adding new material. Identified as "Dream of the Young Peasant Lad," this also had a new program: as a boy dreams on a hill, he is threatened by inhuman voices and finds himself mocked in the realm of shadows. The voices warn of the Devil and the "Black God" Chernobog; as the shadows fade, both appear. Chernobog is glorified, a Black Mass is sung, and a Witches' Sabbath breaks out. As a church bell intones, Chernobog disappears and the demons writhe in agony. A church choir sings, the demons fade away, awakening the boy. Mussorgsky was never to complete Sorochintsy Fair.

In 1867 letter quoted above, Mussorgsky wrote Rimsky-Korsakov "I should like us to examine the orchestration together (...) we might clear up many things." Rimsky-Korsakov fulfilled his end of the bargain in 1886, five years after Mussorgsky's death, in producing Night on Bald Mountain (also "Night on the Bare Mountain"). This was the "Lad's Dream" music, minus its choral parts and with its abrupt, dramatic effectual "stings" removed. The first half of the second section was removed, and Rimsky-Korsakov dropped most of the major-key material save a brief fanfare figure. The whole work was subjected to a streamlining of orchestration and meter, and divided into symmetrical sections. Rimsky-Korsakov has often been accused of "composing" the "Matins Bell" section that concludes Bald Mountain, but in truth the music is all Mussorgsky's save the final flute trio at the very end. The Rimsky-Korsakov edition was an immediate worldwide success from the day it was launched and helped to establish Mussorgsky's name. It remains the most popular version of Mussorgsky's famous piece, although the original versions are available in modern editions and are revived to acclaim as well. Some conductors, such as Claudio Abbado and Esa-Pekka Salonen, have made personal specialties of the 1867 version.

Source: AllMusic (https://www.allmusic.com/composition/night-on-bald-mountain-noch-na-l%C3%AFsoy-gore-symphonic-poem-edited-by-rimsky-korsakov-mc0002369147 ).

Although originally created for full orchestra, I created this Interpretation of the "Night on Bald Mountain" A symphonic poem (IMM 43) for Small Orchestra (Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, Bb Clarinet, English Horn, Bassoon, Bb Trumpet, Flugelhorn, French Horn, Tuba, Timpani, Violins, Violas, Cellos & Bass).

"Domine Deus" from the Mass in B Minor (BWV 232 No. 8) for Woodwind Trio & Strings

7 parts15 pages05:542 years ago519 views
Flute, Oboe, English Horn, Violin(2), Viola, Cello
The Mass in B minor (BWV 232) by Johann Sebastian Bach is a musical setting of the complete Ordinary of the Latin Mass. The work was one of Bach's last compositions, not completed until 1749, the year before his death. Much of the Mass gave new form to vocal music that Bach had composed throughout his career, dating back (in the case of the "Crucifixus") to 1714, but extensively revised. To complete the work, in the late 1740s Bach composed new sections of the Credo such as "Et incarnatus est".

It was unusual for composers working in the Lutheran tradition to compose a Missa tota and Bach's motivations remain a matter of scholarly debate. The Mass was never performed in its entirety during Bach's lifetime; the first documented complete performance took place in 1859. Since the nineteenth century it has been widely hailed as one of the greatest compositions in musical history, and today it is frequently performed and recorded. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach archived this work as the Great Catholic Mass.

On 1 February 1733, Augustus II Strong, Polish King, Grand Duke of Lithuania and Elector of Saxony, died. Five months of mourning followed, during which all public music-making was suspended. Bach used the opportunity to work on the composition of a Missa, a portion of the liturgy sung in Latin and common to both the Lutheran and Roman Catholic rites. His aim was to dedicate the work to the new sovereign Augustus III, a Catholic, with the hope of obtaining the title "Electoral Saxon Court Composer”. Upon its completion, Bach visited Augustus III and presented him with a copy of the Missa, together with a petition to be given a court title, dated July 27, 1733; in the accompanying inscription on the wrapper of the mass he complains that he had "innocently suffered one injury or another” in Leipzig. The petition did not meet with immediate success, but Bach eventually got his title: he was made court composer to Augustus III in 1736.

In the last years of his life, Bach expanded the Missa into a complete setting of the Latin Ordinary. It is not known what prompted this creative effort. Wolfgang Osthoff and other scholars have suggested that Bach intended the completed Mass in B minor for performance at the dedication of the new Hofkirche in Dresden, which was begun in 1738 and was nearing completion by the late 1740s. However, the building was not completed until 1751, and Bach's death in July, 1750 prevented his Mass from being submitted for use at the dedication. Instead, Johann Adolph Hasse's Mass in D minor was performed, a work with many similarities to Bach's Mass (the Credo movements in both works feature chant over a walking bass line, for example). Other explanations are less event-specific, involving Bach's interest in 'encyclopedic' projects (like The Art of Fugue) that display a wide range of styles, and Bach's desire to preserve some of his best vocal music in a format with wider potential future use than the church cantatas they originated in.

The piece is orchestrated for two flutes, two oboes d'amore, one natural horn (in D), three natural trumpets (in D), timpani, violins I and II, violas and basso continuo (cellos, basses, bassoons, organ and harpsichord).

Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_in_B_minor).

I created this arrangement of the "Domine Deus, Rex coelestis" (Lord God, King of Heaven) for Woodwinds (Flute, Oboe & English Horn) & Strings (2 Violins, Viola & Cello).

"Songs of Mary" (Opus 54) for Clarinets & Piano

3 parts6 pages05:105 years ago518 views
Joseph Gregor Zangl (1821 - 1897) was an Austrian (Tyrol) composer from the 19th century. His religious compositions numbered almost 20 in the form of Masses and non-secular works. Very little has been written about his life or compositions.

"3 Marienlieder Aus" ("3 Songs about Mary") contains 3 individual pieces for accompanied Male Voice: 1 "Blick vom Himmelsthron" ("View from the Throne of Heaven
"), 2 "Maria, Jungfrau Rein" ("Mother, Virgin mary") and 3 "Oh Maria, Meine Hife" ("Help Me Mary").

Although originally created for accompanied chorus, I created this arrangement for Clarinet Duet (Bb Clarinet & Bass Clarinet) and Acoustic Piano and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

Concerto in G Major (BWV 973) for Violin & Harp

2 parts12 pages07:29a year ago518 views
Violin, Harp
In late spring 1713, the young prince Johann Ernst returned from his studies at the University of Utrecht to his home at the court at Weimar, where Johann Sebastian Bach was employed as organist. At this time, the prince is believed to have commissioned a series of keyboard works from Bach based on preexisting concertos by other composers. He had heard, during a recent visit to Amsterdam, organist Jan Jacob de Graaf realize solo works and several Italian concertos. Bach subsequently transcribed 16 concertos for various instruments as solo keyboard pieces, using as his source material compositions by Torelli, Marcello, and even Prince Johann Ernst himself -- and of course, the acknowledged master of the genre, Antonio Vivaldi. The latter composer's work provided the basis for the lion's share of the concerto transcriptions from this period, including the work under consideration here, Bach's Concerto No. 2 in G major (BWV 973). Bach based the BWV 973 solo concerto on Vivaldi's Concerto for violin and strings, Op. 7/2, from the second volume of the Concerti a 5 stromenti. (Johann Ernst appears to have gone to the trouble of acquiring a manuscript copy of the work, since the Op. 7 did not appear in print until 1720.) Bach retained the key of the original and left Vivaldi's structure more or less intact. The piece is cast in the three characteristic movements of modest length, two outer fast movements framing the central Largo. The opening movement is built of running sequences based on thirds and fourths, its linear drive idiomatic to the violin but certainly not foreign to the harpsichord; the tutti and solo sections of the original are observed through contrasting chordal and contrapuntal textures. The voice of the original violin can be detected most distinctly in the rapid rising and falling arpeggios of the third solo passage, the jagged melodic contour evoking nimble bowing motions. The non-sustained tone of the harpsichord compels Bach, in the slow E minor movement that follows, to substitute for the violin's inherent fluidity and lyricism the languorous ornamental effects afforded by the keyboard's action. The final movement, returning to the bright G minor key, has more energy and insistence. The solo line builds upon quick, repeat rising gestures and reiterated notes, weaving its way through the keyboard texture as the piece progresses toward its close.

Source: AllMusic (http://www.allmusic.com/composition/concerto-for-solo-keyboard-no-2-in-g-major-after-vivaldi-op-7-2-rv-299-bwv-973-bc-l191-mc0002380038).

Although originally written for Harpsichord. I created this Arrangement of the Concerto in G Major (BWV 973) for Violin & Concert (Pedal) Harp.

Sonata X for Double-Reed Trio

3 parts3 pages04:125 years ago518 views
Andrea Luchesi was born at Motta di Livenza, near Treviso the eleventh child of Pietro Luchese and Caterina Gottardi. The rather wealthy family descended from groups of noble families who had moved from Lucca to Venice in the 14th century (hence the name Luchese. From 1764/65 Andrea began to use the name Luchesi, which we can find written by his contemporaries also as Lucchesi, Lughesi, Luckesi, Lucchezzy, etc.). He grew up in his native town, receiving musical and general education from his elder brother Matteo, a priest, public tutor and organist.

By 1757 he moved to Venice. The protection of the nobleman Jseppo Morosini enabled him to study with eminent musicians: Gioacchino Cocchi, Padre Paolucci, Giuseppe Saratelli, Domenico Gallo, Ferdinando Bertoni and (the best-known of them) Baldassare Galuppi. His career in Venice developed quickly: examiner of the organists commission in 1761, then organist at San Salvatore (1764), composer of works for "organ or cembalo", instrumental, sacred and theatre music. He composed for official celebrations, the last (1771) being the solemn funeral of the Duke of Montealegre, Spanish ambassador to Venice. As a famous virtuoso he was invited to play organ in and outside Venice, e.g. was in charge of inaugurating the new organ of the basilica of Saint Anthony in Padua.

In the spring of 1765 his opera L'isola della fortuna was performed at the Hoftheater in Vienna.

While on tour in Italy in 1771, Leopold and Wolfgang Mozart met Andrea Luchesi and received one of his concertos for cembalo (Wolfgang was still playing the concerto in 1777, while Leopold and Nannerl used often the concerto for teaching and practicing purposes).

At the end of 1771, Luchesi traveled to Bonn on a three-year contract, invited by the Prince Elector Archbishop of Cologne Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels, who wished to raise the quality level of his court chapel. After the death of the previous Kapellmeister (Ludwig van Beethoven senior, i.e. the grandfather of Beethoven), Andrea Luchesi was nominated official court Kapellmeister in 1774.

He acquired the principality's citizenship and in 1775 married Anthonetta Josepha d'Anthoin, daughter of Maximilian Friederich's senior counselor. With the exception of a visit to Venice in 1783-84, he lived in Bonn until his death in 1801, although his role as Kapellmeister ended in 1794, when the French invasion troops suppressed the court.

The young Beethoven was at the court chapel from 1781 to 1792 as assistant organist, cembalo and viola player. Although Beethoven's musical and compositional training was probably influenced by Luchesi's presence, we have no evidence of any formal pupil/teacher relationship between the two.When the court organist Christian Gottlob Neefe temporarily replaced the Kapellmeister as conductor and teacher during his 1783-84 absence, Luchesi assigned the organ service to the very young Beethoven.

Pupils of Luchesi who achieved minor renown included Antonin Reicha, Bernhard and Andreas Romberg, and Ferdinand Ries.

He had one daughter, who lived in Bonn till her death, and four sons. According to Neefe the first two sons (Maximilian Friederich, born 1775-12-11, and M. Jakob Ferdinand, born 1777-12-18) were gifted musicians.

This is an arrangement of his Organ Sonata No. 1 in C major (from Deux sonates pour orgue, Biblioteca del Conservatorio di Musica di Parigi).

Although originally written for Organ, I created this arrangement for Double-Reed Trio (Oboe, English Horn & Bassoon) and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

"Gymnopedie 2" for Viola & Guitar

2 parts2 pages02:442 years ago518 views
Viola, Guitar
Erik Satie's Gymnopédie #2. Satie's Gymnopedies are what many consider to be the groundwork for today's ambient music; it's as ignorable as it is interesting (although, I find it hard to ignore such great music). These three beautiful pieces for solo piano are calming, reflective, ethereal, relaxing, soothing, and elegant.

Gymnopedie No. 2, although sharing the same short-long accompaniment in the left hand, the mood of this piece is entirely different from No. 1 and 3. Its lack of a commitment to a steady key leads the melody on a nebulous path wandering aimlessly through a series of chords.

Although originally created for Solo Piano, I created this arrangement for Viola and Classical Guitar.

Allegro from the Sonata in G Major (Opus 168 Mvt. 2) for Viola & Piano

2 parts8 pages03:363 years ago518 views
Viola, Piano
In the last year of his life, at the age of 85, Camille Saint-Saëns was still active as a composer and conductor, traveling between Algiers and Paris. Besides a final piano album leaf, his last completed works were three sonatas, one each for oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. He sensed that he did not have much time left; he wrote to a friend, "I am using my last energies to add to the repertoire for these otherwise neglected instruments." He intended to write sonatas for another three wind instruments, but was never able to. Saint-Saëns began the pieces early in the year while in Algeria and completed them in April in Paris. He was not alone in wanting to write for these instruments. English composers, such as Holst and Bax, and other French composers, such as Honegger and Milhaud, were also starting to expand the literature for woodwind instruments around the same time. In fact, Saint-Saëns' sonatas have pastoral and humorous moments that are similar to those others' works, relying on simpler melodies and textures than are found even his earlier chamber works, yet retaining Classical forms for their structure. Although all three sonatas were published before Saint-Saëns' death, they were not premiered until later. The Bassoon Sonata, Op. 168, was dedicated to Saint-Saëns' friend, August Périer, a bassoon professor at the Paris Conservatoire.

This, the second movement, Allegro scherzando, begins in minor mode, but it, too, changes frequently between major and minor during its lighthearted jaunt. Although originally written for Bassoon and Piano, I created this arrangement for Viola and Piano.

Aria: "Genügsamkeit ist ein Schatz in diesem Leben" (BWV 144 No 5) for Flute, Oboe & Cello

3 parts3 pages02:203 years ago518 views
Flute, Oboe, Cello
Nimm, was dein ist, und gehe hin (Take what is yours and go away), BWV 144, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Leipzig for the Sunday Septuagesimae, the third Sunday before Lent, and first performed it on 6 February 1724.

Bach wrote the cantata in his first year in Leipzig for Septuagesimae. The prescribed readings for the Sunday were taken from the First Epistle to the Corinthians, "race for victory" (1 Corinthians 9:24–10:5), and from the Gospel of Matthew, the parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1–16). The unknown poet derives from the gospel only the thought to be content with one's lot and submit to God's will, "Genügsamkeit" (contentedness) being a key word. The opening chorus is based on verse 14 of the gospel. Movement 3 is the first stanza of Samuel Rodigast's hymn "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan". The closing chorale is the first stanza of Albert, Duke of Prussia's Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh allzeit (1547).

Bach composed the extremely short Bible quote of the opening chorus as a motet fugue with the instruments playing colla parte, thus intensifying the attention for the words. The phrase "Gehe hin" (go away) is first presented in the slow motion of the theme, but then as a countersubject repeated twice, four times as fast as before. As John Eliot Gardiner notes: "In 1760 the Berlin music theoretician Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg singled out the opening of this cantata, admiring the "splendid declamation which the composer has applied to the main section and to a special little play on the words, "gehe hin!"". (Original German: "die vortreffliche Deklamation", die "der Componist im Hauptsatze und in einem kleinen besonderen Spiele mit dem gehe hin angebracht hatte".) Bach repeated the "gehe hin"-figure sixty times in sixty-eight bars. The first aria has menuet character. In "Murre nicht, lieber Christ" (Do not grumble, dear Christian), the grumbling is illustrated by repeated eighths notes in the accompaniment. Movement 3 is first stanza of the chorale "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" which Bach used later that year completely for his chorale cantata BWV 99, and again in the 1730s for BWV 100. The words "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" are repeated as a free arioso concluding the following recitative. The soprano aria is accompanied by an oboe d'amore obbligato. Instead of a da capo, the complete text is repeated in a musical variation. The closing chorale is set for four parts.

Although this cantata was scored for soprano, alto and tenor soloists, a four-part choir (SATB), two oboes, oboe d'amore, two violins, viola, and basso continuo, I created this arrangement for Flute, Oboe & Cello and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).

Aria: "Den Tod niemand zwingen kunnt" (BWV 4 No 3) for Pipe Organ

1 part3 pages02:512 years ago518 views
Organ
Christ lag in Todes Banden (Christ lay in death's bonds), BWV 4,[a] is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. The title also appears as Christ lag in Todesbanden. It is one of Bach's earliest church cantatas, and was probably intended for a performance at Easter in 1707, related to his application for a post at Mühlhausen. It is an early work in a genre to which he later contributed complete cantata cycles for all occasions of the liturgical year. John Eliot Gardiner describes the work as Bach's "first-known attempt at painting narrative in music".

The cantata is a chorale cantata, a type of composition in which both text and music are based on a Lutheran hymn, in this case Martin Luther's hymn of the same name, the main hymn for Easter in seven stanzas which is based in text and tune on Medieval models. In the format of chorale variations "per omnes versus" (for all stanzas), Bach used in each of the seven vocal movements the unchanged words of a stanza of the chorale, and its tune as a cantus firmus. After an opening sinfonia, the variations are arranged in symmetry: chorus – duet – solo – chorus – solo – duet – chorus, with the focus on the central fourth stanza, about the battle between Life and Death. Although all movements are in the same key of E minor, Bach employs a variety of musical forms and techniques to intensify the meaning of the text.

Christ lag in Todes Banden is Bach's first cantata for Easter, also his only extant original composition for the first day of the feast. He later repeatedly performed it as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, beginning in 1724 when he celebrated Easter there for the first time. Only the performance material from Leipzig is extant. It shows a scoring for four vocal parts, a string section of two violins, two violas and continuo, and a choir of cornetto and trombones doubling the voices at times. The scoring of the first performances was possibly similar, in the style of a "Choralkonzert" (chorale concerto) from the 17th century.

Gardiner calls Bach's setting of Luther's hymn "a bold, innovative piece of musical drama" and observes "his total identification with the spirit and letter of Luther's fiery, dramatic hymn".

Bach is believed to have written the work in 1707 when he was a professional organist aged twenty-two. He had been employed for a few years in Arnstadt as organist of St Boniface's church and was seeking promotion to a more important post, which he found at Mühlhausen in 1707. His duties as a church musician involved some responsibility for choral music, but the year when he began composing cantatas is unknown. Christ lag in Todes Banden is one of a small group of cantatas which survive from his years at Arnstadt or Mühlhausen, and these early works include some fine writing. The Bach scholar Christoph Wolff suggests that Bach may have composed other early cantatas which he did not think worth preserving.

In his first years of composing vocal music, until 1708, Bach wrote cantatas only for special occasions such as wedding and funeral. They were based on texts built from biblical passages and hymns. Features which were characteristic of his later cantatas, such as recitatives and arias on contemporary poetry, were not yet present. Instead, the works included elements from the seventeenth century such as motets and chorale concertos. The following table lists the seven extant works composed by Bach before he moved on to the Weimar court in 1708.

Bach structured the cantata in eight movements: an instrumental sinfonia, and seven vocal movements corresponding to the stanzas of the hymn. The duration is given as 22 minutes.

Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_lag_in_Todes_Banden,_BWV_4).

I created this arrangement of the first Aria: "Den Tod niemand zwingen kunnt" (No one could defeat death) for Pipe Organ.

Sinfonia: "Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal" (BWV 146 No 1) for Marimba & Strings

8 parts30 pages08:204 years ago517 views
Percussion, Strings(7)
Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal (We must pass through great sadness), BWV 146, is a cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach, a church cantata for the third Sunday after Easter. Bach composed it in Leipzig in 1726 or 1728.

Bach composed the cantata in Leipzig for the third Sunday after Easter, called Jubilate. The prescribed readings for the Sunday were from the First Epistle of Peter, "Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man" (1 Peter 2:11–20), and from the Gospel of John, Jesus announcing his second coming in a Farewell discourse (John 16:16–23). Bach contrasted sorrow and joy in earlier cantatas for the same occasion, first in Weimar in 1714, Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12, then in Leipzig in 1725, Ihr werdet weinen und heulen, BWV 103. The unknown poet chose a quote from Acts 14:22 to begin the cantata, "We must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God", which Salomon Franck had already used for the first recitative of "Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen". The three following movements deplore the sufferings in the world, whereas three more movements depict the joyful hope for a better life in the Kingdom of God. The theme throughout his texts is a longing for death. Movement 5 is a paraphrase of Psalms 126:5–20, which Brahms also chose for his Requiem, "They that sow in tears shall reap in joy". Movement 6 refers to Romans 8:18, "For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us". Only the music but not the words of the closing chorale is extant. The ninth stanza of Gregorius Richter's hymn "Lasset ab von euren Tränen" has been suggested by Alfred Dürr as a possible text for this closing chorale. Klaus Hofmann suggested "Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele" by Christoph Demantius.

Two movements of the cantata, the Sinfonia and the first movement, are related to Bach's Harpsichord Concerto in D minor, BWV 1052, which was possibly derived from a lost violin concerto. The original music for the cantata is also lost, but scholars are convinced that it is a work of Bach. He used an instrumental concerto in a similar way for movements of his cantatas Gott soll allein mein Herze haben, BWV 169 and Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen, BWV 49, where his authorship is beyond doubt.

Bach reworked the first movement of the harpsichord concerto to an organ concerto, expanding the strings by woodwind instruments. He changed the second movement to a choral movement by embedding vocal parts in the music, but this time without additional woodwinds. Brian Robins commented:

The opening chorus is superimposed onto the deeply moving slow movement of the concerto, the anguish of the repeated (ostinato) bass line ideally underlining a text concerned with the tribulation that must be endured before the kingdom of heaven is attained.

The third movement is an alto aria with violin obbligato, which transcends "dem Himmel zu" (towards Heaven). The following recitative, a lament on the persecution in the world, is accompanied by long chords of the strings. Movement 5 illustrates in two sections the opposition of sowing with tears and reaping with joy, accompanied by a flute and two oboes d'amore. Movement 7 is probably derived from a secular dance-like movement in da capo form. A ritornello frames the first section, continuo only accompanies the middle section. The final chorale is set for four parts on the melody Werde munter, mein Gemüte.

Although this Cantata was written for Chorus and Orchestra, I created this arrangement for Marimba and Strings (1st Violins, 2nd Violins, Violas, Cellos & Basses).