Sheet music for Piano

Baroque Trill Styles Chart

1 part2 pages00:366 years ago30,740 views
Piano
The trill (or shake, as it was known from the 16th until the 19th century) is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes, usually a semitone or tone apart, which can be identified with the context of the trill. It is sometimes referred to by the German triller, the Italian trillo, the French trille or the Spanish trino. A cadential trill is a trill associated with a cadence.

In the baroque period, a number of signs indicating specific patterns with which a trill should be begun or ended were used. In the Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Johann Sebastian Bach lists a number of these signs together with the correct way to interpret them. Unless one of these specific signs is indicated, the details of how to play the trill are up to the performer. In general, however, trills in this period are executed beginning on the auxiliary note, before the written note, often producing the effect of a harmonic suspension which resolves to the principal note. But, if the note preceding the ornamented note is itself one scale degree above the principal note, then the dissonant note has already been stated, and the trill typically starts on the principal note.

Several trill symbols and techniques common in the Baroque and early Classical period have fallen entirely out of use, including for instance the brief Pralltriller, represented by a very brief wavy line, referred to by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in his Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments (Versuch) (1753–1762).

Beyond the baroque period, specific signs for ornamentation are very rare. Continuing through the time of Mozart, the default expectations for the interpretation of trills continued to be similar to those of the baroque. In music after the time of Mozart, the trill usually begins on the principal note.

All of these are only rules of thumb, and, together with the overall rate of the trill and whether that rate is constant or variable, can only be determined by considering the context in which the trill appears, and is usually to a large degree a matter of opinion with no single "right" way of executing the ornament.
"Sicilienne" (Opus 78) for Flute and Piano
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"Sicilienne" (Opus 78) for Flute and Piano

2 parts5 pages02:526 years ago18,153 views
Flute, Piano
The "Sicilienne" is among Gabriel Fauré's most familiar pieces; it began life as an orchestral sketch in March 1893, intended as incidental music for a revival of Molière's Le Bourgeois gentilhomme at Paul Porel's Eden-Théâtre. Left incomplete as that establishment went bankrupt, Fauré rounded it off and arranged it for cello and piano only in 1898, even as he passed the score along to his pupil Charles Koechlin to orchestrate as an item in the incidental music for a London production of Maeterlinck's Pelléas et Mélisande, where it introduces the scene at the beginning of Act Two, in which Mélisande's wedding ring slips from her finger and disappears into a well as she plays gently with Pelléas -- a use for which it seems predestined. In this form it was first heard with the play's opening at the Prince of Wales' Theatre on June 21, 1898, with Fauré conducting. Given its effectiveness, it was inevitable that Fauré should have included it among the four numbers of his Pelléas et Mélisande Suite, heard for the first time on December 1, 1912, conducted by André Messager. The common practice of publishers in issuing multiple arrangements of works likely to catch on -- for piano, or piano and solo instrument -- ensured that the Sicilienne's lilting wistfulness would become known around the world in the version for cello and piano, published in London by Metzler and Hamelle in Paris in 1898. Like a zephyr, the Sicilienne, with its hypnotically fluid melody carried, as it were, on waves of soothing arpeggiation, evokes a mood of mildly delirious nostalgia. If all music, as Vladimir Jankélévitch has remarked, is nostalgic in a certain manner, the Sicilienne is nostalgic music par excellence, for it embodies a truly existential, or perhaps mysterious, yearning for some undefined, imagined place, a Sicily in the luxuriant realm of dreams.

Although originally written for Cello and Piano, I transcribed his work for Flute and Piano.

"Ave Maria" for Piano & Flute

2 parts3 pages047 years ago17,287 views
Flute, Piano
"Ave Maria" is a popular and much recorded aria composed by Vladimir Vavilov around 1970. It is a musical hoax generally misattributed to Baroque composer Giulio Caccini.

Vavilov himself published and recorded it on the Melodiya label with the ascription to "Anonymous" in 1970. It is believed that the work received its ascription to Giulio Caccini after Vavilov's death, by an organist Mark Shakhin (one of its performers on the mentioned "Melodiya" longplay), who gave the "newly discovered scores" to other musicians; then in an arrangement made by the organist Oleg Yanchenko for the recording by Irina Arkhipova in 1987, then the piece came to be famous worldwide.
Nocturne (Op. 9 No. 2) in E-Flat Major for Viola & Piano
Video

Nocturne (Op. 9 No. 2) in E-Flat Major for Viola & Piano

2 parts4 pages03:023 years ago16,990 views
Viola, Piano
The Nocturnes, Op. 9 are a set of three nocturnes written by Frédéric Chopin between 1830 and 1832 and dedicated to Madame Camille Pleyel. The work was published in 1833.

Chopin composed this popular Nocturne in E-flat major, Op. 9, No. 2 when he was about twenty and it is in rounded binary form (A, A, B, A, B, A) with coda, C. The A and B sections become increasingly ornamented with each recurrence. The penultimate bar utilizes considerable rhythmic freedom, indicated by the instruction, senza tempo (without tempo). Nocturne in E-flat major opens with a legato melody, mostly played piano, containing graceful upward leaps which becomes increasingly wide as the line unfolds. This melody is heard again three times during the piece. With each repetition, it is varied by ever more elaborate decorative tones and trills. The nocturne also includes a subordinate melody, which is played with rubato.

A sonorous foundation for the melodic line is provided by the widely spaced notes in the accompaniment, connected by the damper pedal. The waltz like accompaniment gently emphasizes the 12/8 meter, 12 beats to the measure subdivided into four groups of 3 beats each.

The nocturne is reflective in mood until it suddenly becomes passionate near the end. The new concluding melody begins softly but then ascends to a high register and is played forcefully in octaves, eventually reaching the loudest part of the piece, marked fortissimo. After a trill-like passage, the excitement subsides; the nocturne ends calmly.

Although originally composed for solo piano, I created this arrangement for Solo Viola & Acoustic Piano.

Sonata in G Minor (HWV 360 Op. 1 No. 2) for Viola & Piano

2 parts8 pages08:452 years ago15,029 views
Viola, Piano
Most music lovers have encountered George Frederick Handel through holiday-time renditions of the Messiah's "Hallelujah" chorus. And many of them know and love that oratorio on Christ's life, death, and resurrection, as well as a few other greatest hits like the orchestral Water Music and Royal Fireworks Music, and perhaps Judas Maccabeus or one of the other English oratorios. Yet his operas, for which he was widely known in his own time, are the province mainly of specialists in Baroque music, and the events of his life, even though they reflected some of the most important musical issues of the day, have never become as familiar as the careers of Bach or Mozart. Perhaps the single word that best describes his life and music is "cosmopolitan": he was a German composer, trained in Italy, who spent most of his life in England.

The Sonata in G minor (HWV 360) was composed by George Frideric Handel for recorder and harpsichord (the autograph manuscript, a fair copy made most likely in 1712, gives this instrumentation in Italian: "flauto e cembalo"). The work is also referred to as Opus 1 No. 2, and was first published in 1732 by Walsh. Other catalogues of Handel's music have referred to the work as HG xxvii,9; and HHA iv/3,16.

Both the Walsh edition and the Chrysander edition indicate that the work is for recorder ("flauto"), and published it as Sonata II.

I created this arrangement for Viola & Piano.
"Dance of the Blessed Spirits" for Flute and Piano
Video

"Dance of the Blessed Spirits" for Flute and Piano

2 parts4 pages06:026 years ago14,654 views
Flute, Piano
The "Orfeo ed Euridice" (Orpheus and Eurydice) is an opera composed by Christoph Willibald Gluck based on the myth of Orpheus and set to a libretto by Ranieri de' Calzabigi.

Gluck's "Orfeo and Euredice", one of the turning points in the history of opera, received its premiere in Vienna on 5th October 1762. "Beautiful simplicity" was the phrase used by Gluck and his librettist Ranieri de Calzabigi for what they had set out to achieve, and the work without doubt offered the clearest challenge yet seen or heard to the moribund conventions of Italian "opera seria". Musically it proved to be a work of unparalleled directness, concise in its effects, plain in its speech, overwhelming in its impact.

The subject of the opera is the Orpheus of Greek mythology, the famous poet and singer who could charm wild animals with his music. When his wife Euradice died he followed her to Hades and won her back by his art with the condition that he should not look at her until he reached the world again. (He did, with predictably disastrous consequences!)

The Dance of the Blessed Spirits occurs in Act 2 of the opera, and consists of a 'roundelay' for strings with two flutes floating above the melody, a tune which nobody who has once heard it is likely to forget. The calm contemplative beauty of the Elysian Fields is perfectly captured by this music which is both tranquil yet at the same time seems to be somehow threaded with melancholy.

Although originally written for opera, this arrangement highlights the haunting elegance of the flute.
"Hark! the Herald Angels Sing" for Piano, Organ, English Handbells and Choir
Video

"Hark! the Herald Angels Sing" for Piano, Organ, English Handbells and Choir

9 parts13 pages03:347 years ago7,175 views
Voice(4), Percussion(2), Piano, Organ
"Hark! the Herald Angels Sing" music is from the second chorus of a cantata by Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) written in 1840 to commemorate Johann Gutenberg and the invention of printing. The words are from a hundred years earlier, written in 1739 by Charles Wesley whose brother, John, Wesley founded the Methodist Church.

My arrangement for Piano, Organ, English Handbells and Choir is an ensemble for piano, organ, English handbells and SATB choir arranged for the Sierra Vista United Methodist Church (SVUMC) from the United Methodist Church Hymnal #240.

I added English Handbells in order to add brilliance to this magnificent work. I arranged it into a full orchestral score, in modified keys of F and G Major.

The addition of English Handbells was not written to replace the piano and organ accompaniment. Rather, it adds color and brilliance to the fanfare – like sections of the score.

The full score, including the English Handbell part, is not necessary for performance. Conductors should simply mark English Handbell entrance cues in their score.

Care should be taken so that English Handbells are not overwhelmed by the accompanying piano and organ, especially the organ. I suggest that the manual stops be bright flutes or brass and strings (as noted in the “Organ Registration” section) with no doubling of pitches, with eight and sixteen foot pedal stops only. Four foot manual stops should be avoided.

This piece is best played using the "HandBells.sf2" SoundFont by FMJ Software.(http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).
"Pavane" (Opus 50) for Flute and Piano
Video

"Pavane" (Opus 50) for Flute and Piano

2 parts6 pages056 years ago14,205 views
Flute, Piano
The "Pavane" in F# minor, Op. 50, is a composition by the French composer Gabriel Fauré, written in 1887. It was originally a piano piece, but is better known in Fauré's version for orchestra and optional chorus. Obtaining its rhythm from the slow processional Spanish court dance of the same name, the Pavane ebbs and flows from a series of harmonic and melodic climaxes, conjuring a cool, somewhat haunting, Belle Époque elegance.

The original version of the Pavane was written for piano in the late 1880s. The composer described it as "elegant, but not otherwise important." Fauré intended it to be played more briskly than it has generally come to be performed in its more familiar orchestral guise.

Since its premiere in 1888, Gabriel Fauré ’s Pavane Op. 50 has been an enormously popular piece of classical music. Its beautiful main melody, evocative harmonies and effective orchestration create a very stirring and infectious work, which is why it has become such a favourite with audiences and is so frequently heard time and time again. It was used as the theme to the 1998 World Cup, and has also been the basis for various popular music songs, such as Charlotte Church’s "Dream a Dream".

Although originally written for Piano and later Orchestra, I arranged his work for Flute and Piano.
"Ave Maria" based on a prelude by J.S. Bach for Flute & Piano
Video

"Ave Maria" based on a prelude by J.S. Bach for Flute & Piano

2 parts4 pages02:156 years ago13,731 views
Flute, Piano
Ave Maria based on a prelude by J.S. Bach written by French Romantic composer Charles Gounod in 1859 as the "Consideration on Bach's prelude". His Ave Maria consists of a melody superimposed over the Prelude No. 1 in C major, BWV 846, from Book I of The Well-Tempered Clavier, written by J.S. Bach some 137 years earlier.

I transcribed his original piece for Flute & Piano.
Sonata in E♭ Major  (Opus 167) for Clarinet and Piano
Video

Sonata in E♭ Major (Opus 167) for Clarinet and Piano

2 parts26 pages17:216 years ago12,104 views
Clarinet, Piano
In the last year of his life, at the age of 85, Camille Saint-Saëns was still active as a composer and conductor, traveling between Algiers and Paris. Besides a final piano album leaf, his last completed works were three sonatas, one each for oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. He sensed that he did not have much time left; he wrote to a friend, "I am using my last energies to add to the repertoire for these otherwise neglected instruments." He intended to write sonatas for another three wind instruments, but was never able to. Saint-Saëns began the pieces early in the year while in Algeria and completed them in April in Paris. He was not alone in wanting to write for these instruments. English composers, such as Holst and Bax, and other French composers, such as Honegger and Milhaud, were also starting to expand the literature for woodwind instruments around the same time. In fact, Saint-Saëns' sonatas have pastoral and humorous moments that are similar to those others' works, relying on simpler melodies and textures than are found even his earlier chamber works, yet retaining Classical forms for their structure. Although all three sonatas were published before Saint-Saëns' death, they were not premiered until later. This, the Sonata for clarinet and piano in E flat major, Op. 167, is cherished by many performers.

Saint-Saëns' Clarinet Sonata has four movements, and thus might be said to reach back past the Romantic sonata tradition, with its normal three-movement vessel, to the Classical tradition that Saint-Saëns loved so dearly. The opening melodic strains of the Allegretto first movement float upon a sea of utterly calm eighth note waves in the piano (bobbing up and down in 12/8 meter); the composer is in no hurry to reveal the secrets of the movement, but there is still passion aplenty as we go along, even if the movement as a whole is not especially long.

A scherzo movement comes next, taking up A flat major, and then Saint-Saëns provides a Lento in the dark key of E flat minor; its steady half notes and, in time, quarter notes, are so persistent in their slow plodding that we almost feel anguish at their inability to break free from the dirge they create. Much happier, though, is the Molto Allegro fourth movement that follows it without pause. Here the clarinetist is given a chance to whirl and spin to some very florid virtuoso stuff, but at the end it is the quiet tone, and even in fact the very music, of the first movement that the composer uses to close.
"Jesu Joy of Mans Desiring" (BWV 147 No. 10) for Viola & Piano
Custom audio

"Jesu Joy of Mans Desiring" (BWV 147 No. 10) for Viola & Piano

2 parts2 pages02:444 years ago10,598 views
Viola, Piano
Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben (Heart and mouth and deed and life), BWV 147, is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. It was written originally in Weimar in 1716 (BWV 147a) for Advent and expanded in 1723 for the feast of the Visitation in Leipzig, where it was first performed on 2 July 1723.

Bach composed the cantata in his first year as Thomaskantor in Leipzig for the Marian feast "Mariae Heimsuchung" (Visitation). The prescribed readings for the feast day were Isaiah 11:1--5, the prophecy of the Messiah, and from the Gospel of Luke, Luke 1:39--56, Mary's visit to Elizabeth, including her song of praise, the "Magnificat". He used as a base a cantata in six movements composed in Weimar for the fourth Sunday in Advent. As Leipzig observed tempus clausum (time of silence) from Advent II to Advent IV, Bach could not perform the cantata for that occasion and rewrote it for the feast of the Visitation. The original words were suitable for a feast celebrating Mary in general; more specific recitatives were added, the order of the arias changed, and the closing chorale was replaced and repeated on a different verse to expand the cantata to two parts. The words are verses 6 and 16 of the chorale "Jesu, meiner Seelen Wonne" (1661) by Martin Jahn (de).

The music of the chorale movements is now best known for the piano transcription by Dame Myra Hess of Hugh P. Allen's choral version of Bach's arrangement, and is notable under the title Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring which approximately relates to "Jesus bleibet meine Freude", more closely translated as "Jesus shall remain my gladness".

Although this cantata was scored for four soloists and a four-part choir, a festive trumpet, two oboes (oboe d'amore, oboe da caccia), two violins, viola and basso continuo including bassoon, I created this arrangement for Viola & Acoustic Piano.

"Hallelujah, Amen" from "Judas Maccabäus" (HWV 63) for Piano & Woodwind Quartet

5 parts5 pages01:255 years ago8,076 views
Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, Piano
"Judas Maccabaeus" (HWV 63) is an oratorio in three acts composed in 1746 by George Frideric Handel based on a libretto written by Thomas Morell. The oratorio was devised as a compliment to the victorious Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland upon his return from the Battle of Culloden (16 April 1746). Other catalogues of Handel's music have referred to the work as HG xxii; and HHA 1/24. Morell's libretto is based on the deuterocanonical 1 Maccabees (2-8), with motives added from the Antiquitates Judaicae by Flavius Josephus.

The events depicted in the oratorio are from the period 170-160 BC when Judea was ruled by the Seleucid Empire which undertook to destroy the Jewish religion. Being ordered to worship Zeus, many Jews obeyed under the threat of persecution, however some did not. One who defied was the elderly priest Mattathias who killed a fellow Jew who was about to offer a pagan sacrifice. After tearing down a pagan altar, Mattathias retreated to the hills and gathered others who were willing to fight for their faith.

"Hallelujah, Amen" is from ACT III depicting Victory that has finally been achieved for the Jewish people. News arrives that Rome is willing to form an alliance with Judas against the Seleucid empire. The people rejoice that peace has at last come to their country (O lovely peace).

Although originally written for Opera, I created this arrangement for Acoustic Piano & Woodwind Quartet (Flute, Oboe, Bb Clarinet and Bassoon).

"Sposa, son Disprezzata" from "Bajazet" (RV 703 No 13) for Viola & Piano

2 parts3 pages03:574 years ago6,141 views
Viola, Piano
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi nicknamed il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest") because of his red hair, was an Italian Baroque composer, priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice. Vivaldi is recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during his lifetime was widespread over Europe. Vivaldi is known mainly for composing instrumental concertos, especially for the violin, as well as sacred choral works and over 40 operas. His best known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons.

Bajazet (also called Il Tamerlano) is an Italian opera composed by Antonio Vivaldi in 1735. Its libretto was written by Agostino Piovene. It was premiered in Verona, during the Carnival season of that year. This opera (catalog number RV 703) is presented in 3 acts, with a three-movement sinfonia as an introduction. The story is about the fate of Bajazet (known as Beyazid I) after being captured by Tamerlane (Timur Lenk).

Bajazet is a pasticcio. It was a common practice during Vivaldi's time for composers to borrow and adapt arias from other composers with their own works for an opera. Vivaldi himself composed the arias for the good characters (Bajazet, Asteria and Idaspe) and mostly used existing arias from other composers for the villains (Tamerlano, Irene, Andronico) in this opera. Some of the arias are reused from previous Vivaldi operas. The famous aria, "Sposa son disprezzata" (The Scorned Wife) is from this opera and this arrangement was created for Viola & Acoustic Piano and it is best played using the "GeneralUser GS.sf2" Soundfont by S. Christian Collins Software (http://www.schristiancollins.com/generaluser.php).
"Méditation" from the Opera "Thaïs" by Jules Massenet
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"Méditation" from the Opera "Thaïs" by Jules Massenet

2 parts4 pages04:216 years ago6,110 views
Flute, Piano
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer lived from May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912 and is best known for his operas. His compositions were very popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and he ranks as one of the greatest melodists of his era. Soon after his death, Massenet's style went out of fashion, and many of his operas fell into almost total oblivion. Apart from Manon and Werther, his works were rarely performed. However, since the mid-1970s, many of his operas such as Thaïs (pronounced tah-eess / ta:'i:s) and Esclarmonde have undergone periodic revivals.

Thaïs was created as an opera in three acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Louis Gallet based on the novel Thaïs by Anatole France. It was first performed at the Opéra Garnier in Paris on 16 March 1894, starring the American soprano Sybil Sanderson, for whom Massenet had written the title role.

This famous "Méditation", the entr'acte for violin and orchestra played between the scenes of Act II, is often performed as a concert music piece; it has been arranged for many different instruments as with the flute and piano here.

"Trumpet Tune & March" in D Major for Trumpet & Piano

2 parts2 pages01:545 years ago5,998 views
Trumpet, Piano
Jeremiah Clarke (c. 1674–1707) was an English baroque composer, organist and, pupil of John Blow at St Paul's Cathedral. He later became organist at the Chapel Royal. After his death, he was succeeded in that post by William Croft.

Clarke is best remembered for a popular keyboard piece: the Prince of Denmark's March, which is commonly called the Trumpet Voluntary, written about 1700. From c. 1878 until the 1940s the work was attributed to Henry Purcell, and was published as Trumpet Voluntary by Henry Purcell in William Sparkes's Short Pieces for the Organ, Book VII, No. 1 (London, Ashdown and Parry). This version came to the attention of Sir Henry J. Wood, who made two orchestral transcriptions of it, both of which were recorded. The recordings further cemented the erroneous notion that the original piece was by Purcell. Clarke's piece is a popular choice for wedding music, and has featured in royal weddings.

The famous Trumpet Tune in D (also incorrectly attributed to Purcell), was taken from the semi-opera The Island Princess which was a joint musical production of Clarke and Daniel Purcell (Henry Purcell's younger brother)—probably leading to the confusion.

Although originally written for Pipe Organ, I Arranged this piece for "C" Trumpet and Piano.

"The Women of Ireland" (Mná Na H'Éireann) for Flute & Piano

2 parts2 pages042 years ago5,918 views
Flute, Piano
Mná na hÉireann" (English: Women of Ireland), is a poem written by Ulster poet Peadar Ó Doirnín (1704–1796), most famous as a song, and especially set to an air composed by Seán Ó Riada (1931–1971). As a modern song, Mná na hÉireann is usually placed in the category of Irish rebel music[citation needed]; as an eighteenth-century poem it belongs to the genre (related to the aisling) which imagines Ireland as a generous, beautiful woman suffering the depredations of an English master on her land, her cattle, or her self, and which demands Irishmen to defend her, or ponders why they fail to.[1] The poem also seems to favor Ulster above the other Irish provinces. Ó Doirnín was part of the distinctive Airgíalla tradition of poetry, associated with southern Ulster and north Leinster; in this poem he focuses on Ulster place-names, and he sees the province as being particularly assaulted (for instance, he says that being poor with his woman would be better than being rich with herds of cows and the shrill queen who assailed Tyrone, in Ulster, i.e. Medb who attacked Cooley, as the borderlands of Ulster, which would have lain in ancient Airgíalla). This may be because, besides being the poet's home, until the success of the Plantation of Ulster the province had been the most militantly Gaelic of the Irish provinces in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Although originally written for traditional instruments, i created this arrangement for a friend as a duet for Flute and Piano.
Sonata in D Major (Opus 166) for Oboe and Piano
Video

Sonata in D Major (Opus 166) for Oboe and Piano

2 parts18 pages08:536 years ago5,560 views
Oboe, Piano
In the last year of his life, at the age of 85, Camille Saint-Saëns was still active as a composer and conductor, traveling between Algiers and Paris. Besides a final piano album leaf, his last completed works were three sonatas, one each for oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. He sensed that he did not have much time left; he wrote to a friend, "I am using my last energies to add to the repertoire for these otherwise neglected instruments." He intended to write sonatas for another three wind instruments, but was never able to. Saint-Saëns began the pieces early in the year while in Algeria and completed them in April in Paris. He was not alone in wanting to write for these instruments. English composers, such as Holst and Bax, and other French composers, such as Honegger and Milhaud, were also starting to expand the literature for woodwind instruments around the same time. In fact, Saint-Saëns' sonatas have pastoral and humorous moments that are similar to those others' works, relying on simpler melodies and textures than are found even his earlier chamber works, yet retaining Classical forms for their structure. Although all three sonatas were published before Saint-Saëns' death, they were not premiered until later.

The Sonata for oboe and piano, Op. 166, was the first of the three to be completed over the course of a couple of months in early 1921. As soon as he was finished, Saint-Saëns wrote to his publisher in Paris that he wanted to have them "tested" before they were edited for publication. The Oboe Sonata was played by his friend Louis Bas, who seemed so pleased with the work that Saint-Saëns dedicated it to him. The structure and lines of the sonata are not unlike what other French and neo-Classical composers were using around the same period and, in fact, the Oboe Sonata also has almost a preternatural resemblance to the works of the English pastoralists (Saint-Saëns was living in Algeria when he wrote it). The sonata opens with a gentle Andantino, followed by the bipartite second movement, an ad libitum recitative leading into an Allegretto gigue. The final Molto allegro is almost dance-like with shades of the energy of Saint-Saëns' more youthful works. All in all, the sonata is a standard work in the oboe repertoire, giving the performer a gratifying match between technical challenges and melodic expression.


Saint-Saëns' Oboe Sonata has three movements however, the movements are not ordered according to the traditional fast-slow-fast sonata system. The tempo of the movements increases successively.

The first movement, Andantino, is music of a pastoral kind, in ternary form ABA. The opening theme of the oboe solo is an echo of the Westminster chime.

The core of the second movement is a Romance, marked Allegretto. It is preceded by an introduction and followed by an epilogue.The introduction and epilogue are marked ad libitum - that is, the performer is free to choose the tempo they feel is most appropriate. At the end of the second movement there is an oboe cadenza, with sharp piano chords and expressive phrases.

The last movement, titled Molto Allegro, short and brilliant, has passages of great difficulty and virtuosity.