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Harpsichord :A Fish named Wanda

For Chamber Orchestra


Uploaded on Jan 10, 2019

Gustav Leonhardt was born in 's-Graveland, North Holland and studied organ and harpsichord from 1947 to 1950 with Eduard Müller at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis in Basel. In 1950, he made his debut as a harpsichordist in Vienna, where he studied musicology. He was professor of harpsichord at the Academy of Music from 1952 to 1955 and at the Amsterdam Conservatory from 1954. He was also a church organist.

Career
Leonhardt performed and conducted a variety of solo, chamber, orchestral, operatic, and choral music from the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical periods. The many composers whose music he recorded as a harpsichordist, organist, clavichordist, fortepianist, chamber musician or conductor included Johann Sebastian Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Heinrich Biber, John Blow, Georg Böhm, William Byrd, André Campra, François Couperin, Louis Couperin, John Dowland, Jacques Duphly, Antoine Forqueray, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Johann Jakob Froberger, Orlando Gibbons, André Grétry, George Frideric Handel, Jacques-Martin Hotteterre, Jean-Baptiste Lully, Claudio Monteverdi, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Georg Muffat, Johann Pachelbel, Henry Purcell, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Christian Ritter, Johann Rosenmüller, Domenico Scarlatti, Agostino Steffani, Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Georg Philipp Telemann, Francisco Valls, Antonio Vivaldi, and Matthias Weckmann.

Central to Leonhardt's career was Johann Sebastian Bach. Leonhardt first recorded music of the composer in the early 1950s, with recordings in 1953 of the Goldberg Variations and The Art of Fugue. The latter embodies the thesis he had published the previous year arguing that the work was intended for the keyboard, a conclusion now widely accepted. The recordings helped establish his reputation as a distinguished harpsichordist and Bach interpreter. In 1954 he led the Leonhardt Baroque Ensemble with the English countertenor Alfred Deller in a pioneering recording of two Bach cantatas. The Ensemble included his wife Marie Leonhardt (born 1928), Eduard Melkus (violins), Alice Harnoncourt-Hoffelner (violin, viola), Nikolaus Harnoncourt (cello) and Michel Piguet (oboe).

In 1971, Leonhardt and Harnoncourt undertook the project of recording the complete Bach cantatas; the two conductors Born at Pont-l'Abbé, Finistère, Brittany, he was the son of French sculptor Paul Landowski and great-grandson of the composer Henri Vieuxtemps.

mARCEL lANDOWSKY WAS THE GREAT GRANDSON OF VIEUXTEMPS as an infant he showed early musical promise, and studied piano under Marguerite Long. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1935; in addition one of his teachers was Pierre Monteux.

Administrative career
In 1966, France's Cultural Affairs minister André Malraux appointed Landowski as the ministry's director of music, a controversial appointment made in the teeth of opposition from the then ascendant modernists, led by Pierre Boulez.[1]

One of his first acts was the establishment, in 1967, of the Orchestre de Paris, appointing Charles Munch as its first director. He also championed the establishment of regional orchestras at a time when interest in them appeared to be waning.[2] This was part of a so-called "ten-year plan for music", instituted with the intention of establishing an opera company and conservatoire in each of the Regions of France. The new Orchestre de Paris was also built on the model intended to be followed by planned regional orchestras. In this endeavour Landowski worked with local authorities, especially those in the regional centres such as Bordeaux, Lille, Lyon, Strasbourg and Toulouse, who signed agreements under which the French State would finance a third of each company or ensemble's operating budget. Landowski also oversaw modernisation of regional concert halls and theatres.Compositions
Landowski eschewed the avant-garde approaches to music of his contemporaries, preferring a more conservative style. His greatest musical influence was Arthur Honegger. His entire output includes five symphonies, several concertos (notably two for piano and one each for bassoon, for cello, for flute, for trumpet, for trombone, for violin), operas as well as a Mass and bears testimony to Honegger's impact. Landowski went on to write a biography of his mentor.

Selected Works
1940 Piano Concerto No. 1
1949 Symphony No. 1, "Jean de la Peur"
1954 Concerto for ondes Martenot and string orchestra.
1956 Le Fou (opera)
1962 Les Notes du Nuit (symphonic poem)
1963 Piano Concerto No. 2
1963 Symphony No. 2
1964 Symphony No. 3, "Des Espaces"
1968 Flute Concerto
1976 Trumpet Concerto
1977 Messe de l'Aurore, oratorio on a poem by Pierre Emmanuel
1979 Un enfant apelle (composed for the cellist Mstislav Rostropovich and his wife, soprano Galina Vishnevskaya).
1982 L'Horloge, symphonic poem.
1987 La Vieille Maison, "musical tale" in 2 acts
1988 Symphony No. 4
1998 Symphony No. 5, "Les Lumières de la nuit"
Many of his works were recorded by Erato Records who issued a retrospective of his recordings in 2010.

JohannHasse had intended to retire from opera but was compelled by Maria Theresa to compose a further work, Ruggiero (1771), again set to a Metastasian libretto. In 1771, when hearing 15-year-old Mozart's opera Ascanio in Alba, Hasse is reported to have remarked the prophetic words: "This boy will cause us all to be forgotten. Thanks to a Polish fish named .He knew J.SBach and they became friens after Bach heard his work.He was primarily an opera and religious music composer .
"Wanda " Landowska the eaerly keyboard music came back into vogue and people began to have interest in the harpsichord and its almost unknown repertoire ! She was the first person to record J.S. Bach's Goldberg Variations (BWV 988) on the harpsichord (1931).

Wanda Landowska was born in Warsaw, where her father was a lawyer, and her mother a linguist who translated Mark Twain into Polish. She began playing piano at the age of four, and studied at the Warsaw Conservatory with Kleczynski and Michalowski. She also studied composition with Heinrich Urban in Berlin. After marrying the Polish folklorist Henry Lew in 1900 in Paris, she taught piano at the Schola Cantorum there (1900-1912).

Wanda Landowska taught harpsichord at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik from 1912 to 1919. Deeply interested in musicology, and particularly in the works of J.S. Bach, François Couperin and Rameau, she toured the museums of Europe looking at original keyboard instruments; she acquired old instruments and had new ones made at her request by Pleyel and Company. These were large, heavily-built harpsichords with a 16-foot stop and owed much to piano construction. They have largely fallen out of fashion in the past four decades, and have done much to harm the modern appreciation of Landowska's recordings.

A number of important new works were written for her: Manuel de Falla's El retablo de maese Pedro marked the return of the harpsichord to the modern orchestra. Falla later wrote a harpsichord concerto for her, and Francis Poulenc composed his Concert champêtre for her.

Wanda Landowska established the École de Musique Ancienne at Paris in 1925: from 1927, her home in Saint-Leu became a center for the performance and study of old music. When Germany invaded France, Landowska, a naturalized French citizen of Jewish origin, escaped with her assistant and companion Denise Restout, leaving Saint-Leu in 1940, sojourning in southern France, and finally sailing from Lisbon to the USA. She arrived in New York on December 7, 1941. The house in Saint-Leu was looted, and her instruments and manuscripts stolen, so she arrived in the USA essentially without assets. She settled in Lakeville, Connecticut in 1949 and re-established herself as a performer and teacher in the USA, touring extensively. Her life companion Denise Restout was editor and translator of her writings on music, including Musique ancienne, and Landowska on Music.

A fish named Wanda Harpsichord:AFish named Wanda The Grotesque

Pages 45
Duration 13:43
Measures 353
Key signature natural
Parts 28
Part names Piccolo, Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon, Tenor Saxophone, French Horn, Trumpet, Timpani, Percussion(7), Piano, Harp, Guitar, Harpsichord, Violin(3), Strings, Viola, Cello(2), Contrabass
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